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Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Timur/Taimur Lang /TamerlaneAttacks on Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 139


                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                         Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane in Haridwar (1399)

                 Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane captured Delhi on 17th December 1398.
            In Samarkand, there were popular stories and sayings available about gold dust mines and musk deer of Kedarbhumi and Manasbhumi (Today’s Garhwal and Kumaon). Timur Lang/Tamerlane/Taimur Lang attacked Shivalik and Himalayan foothills after finishing cruelest ever loots in west North India for gold mines and musk deer. On 13th January, 1399, his army reached to Gangadwar or Haridwar. Baccharaj (Bahruj) was king of Shivalik and Salan including Bhabhar region of Uttarakhand.  Initially, the armed forces of Baccharaj tried to stop attack of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane by boat. The armed force of Baccharaj did not get success in stopping Taimur’s attack. Then the armed force of Baccharaj tried stopping the army of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane at Chandi Ghat (Haridwar). The Hindu army chief Shekha (Shekhar) surrounded his armed force around Timur army and killed dozens   soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane. However, at last, the soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane killed Shekha (Shikhar0 and his soldiers brutally.
  On night of 13th January and 14th January 1399, the soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane captured all men, women and children and killed those resisted. The Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army looted wealth and domestic animals.
           After three days, there was bloody fight between the soldiers of Baccharaj and other kings at Mohandaraa at foot hills of Shivalik. Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane and his army killed and captured thousands of men-women and children. They looted wealth, food grains and domestic animals and started back to Samarkand. While going back with lakhs of captive human and animals, food grains and wealth Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane had to face resistance at a pass from Ratansen the king of Lakhamandal, Saharanpur and Ambala-Sirmaur. However, Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane defeated Ratansen. Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army killed thousands of people and looted food grains, domestic animals and wealth. There was epidemic due to decomposition of dead human bodies in all area wherever Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane and his army marched. 
  The whole region of Shivalik foot hills and Lakhamandal became human less. There was destruction of crops and loot of food grains by Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army. Thus, there was famine in the region.
  In sixty year (1938 and 1399), there were two cruel most attacks on Uttarakhand by Tuglak army and Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane on Uttarakhand. These attacks created poverty in the area for many centuries.
                               Ground for Rise of Chand Imperialism
               The poor living conditions among people created ground for rise of Chand Imperialism in Kumaon region.   

                 Ground for Rise of Panwar Dynasty in Garhwal
 The attacks of Tuglak and Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane on Kedarbhumi (Garhwal) created ground for Panwar rule in Garhwal

          The Rulers of Uttarakhand at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks
                 Kedarbhumi or Garhwal at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks
Lakhamandal – Ratansen 1390-1420
Doon Bhabhar, Haridwar, three Salan and Garhwal Bhabhar – Bahuruj (Baccharaj) and Shridhar 1380-140


                           Manasbhumi or Kumaon Region at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks

Katyur Danpur – Raut king Kadadu 1360-
Succssors of Kadadu Parsi, Kali, Gangu -1410
Kali Kumaon – Gyaan Chand 1367-1420



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10 , Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526  
The Imperial Gazetteer of India ,Volume 13 page 52  
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -140
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Timur/Taimur Attack on Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Chandighat , Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Haridwar Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Doon Bhabahr Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Garhwal Bhabhar Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Salan, Garhwal Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Mohandarra Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Lakhamandal Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Chakrata region, Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on North India in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on India in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on South Asian region in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History;