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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Bhakt Prahlad: The First Modern Garhwali Drama

 Bhakt Prahlad: The First Modern Garhwali Drama
           (Review on a Garhwali Drama ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal)
(Notes on Garhwali Stage Plays, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Stage Plays)
                                   Bhishm Kukreti
                 Bhakt Prahlad is the first published modern Garhwali drama by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal (Khaid, Mavalsyun, Pauri Garhwal, 1867-1932) in 1914 from Calcutta. However, Bhavani Datt Thapliyal wrote Jay-Vijay a Garhwali drama before Bhakt Prahlad but due to technical problem he could publish Jay-Vijay drama after Bhakt Prahlad.  Jay-Vijay is based on well known folk Garhwali story and poem-Daint-Sanghar.  Jay-Vijay drama is the foundation for Bhakt Prahlad drama.  In Hindi drama scene, it was the transit period between Bhartendu Harish Chandra and Jay Shankar Prasad. The creation period of ‘Dhrub Swamini’ by Jay Shankar Prasad is same as of Bhakt Prahlad’.
  Parsi theatre style (initiated in 1853) was dominating dramas of Indian vernacular languages. The form of Parsi theatre was highly electric and stories were taken from epics as Mahabharata.  In the same period, Sankardas Swamigal had been initiating Tamil dramas for modernization and bringing professionalism from at the end  of  nineteenth century; D.L .Roy was accelerating the work of  Golak Nath Das in the beginning of twentieth century ; C.V Raman Pillai wrote modern Malayalam drama ‘Kuruppillakkalari(1908) and Pandate Panchan introduced it in 1908’; in Telugu drama world, Chandala keshav Das’s ‘Kanak Tara’,  Pundit K.Subramanya Sastri’s ‘Shir Krishna lilau (1914), Shrimula Sachidanand sastri’s ‘Savitri’(1915) dramas were staged and various regional groups staged mythological and social based dramas in Kannada too.  
               Jag Mohan Lala is the father of modern Oriya theatre (1875) who also wrote first Oriya play ‘Baba ji’.
        In Marathi theatre, the era from 1882-1920 is called one of the productive eras. Around 1894-1928, Shripad Krishna Kolhatkar dominated Marathi drama world as his 12 plays were staged. There is similarity between the themes of ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ a Garhwali drama by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal and ‘ Kanchangadchi Mohana’  (1897) a Marathi drama by Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar that both dramas were based on the well known mythological stories but both the dramas were full of contemporary relevancies. While Khadilkar the Marathi playwright created a Prataprao for propagating notion of independence inKanchangadchi Mohana’ and Bhavani Datt Thapliyal created many new characters as Kaljugyanand a Guru who is a corrupt Guru, Gunda, Bhakunda, Durmati  for attacking on political and social wrong -happenings . No doubt, Bhavani Datt Thapliyal dedicated the drama to George pancham but the drama criticized and make ridicules of British raj in the drama 9a dialogue- Amto Mister ho gaya ab yurpo jana mangta..”. Shenoi Goembab (1877-1946) played major role in developing Konkani dramas in this period. However, Shenoi Goembab adapted western dramas for Konkani.
             In the same period, Jivan Jha wrote first modern Maithili plays –‘Sundarsanyoga’ (1904) and ‘Narmada Sagar’ (1906), both were social dramas and were staged in Varansi . Munsi raghunandan das wrote ‘Maithili’ and staged ‘Maithili’ play in Maithili area in 1910.
            Shiv Charan Bhartiya was first Rajashthani dramatist published ‘Kesharvilas’ in 1900. The drama is a social drama and influenced by Parsi theatre.
 The first Mizo drama written in Mizo script is ‘Krista pallai’(19340 directed by Chauwngzika.
   Sorokhaibam lalit is called father figure of modern Manipuri drama. First modern Assamese drama is ‘Ramnavami’ by Gunabhiram  Barua (1857). The drama is about widow remarriage. The mythological subjects with social messages dominated Assamese dramas from 1857-1920. Dhanbir Mukhiya staged a complete Nepali language drama in 1909 in Darjiling. Pahalaman Singh swar  is credited for publishing first ever modern drama in Nepali  language ‘Atalbahadur’ . the said drama was published from varansi in 1906,
          Santan dharma Natak Samaj initiated staging mythological and moralistic Dogri plays from 1914 in Jammu.  
         Dip Cand bahman is called as ‘Kalidas of modern Haryanvi dramas who polished old folk theater style in Haryana around First World War.
           By studying the various plays of various Indian languages, it is obvious that in the period 1880-1925, the Indian playwrights tried to infuse social messages into mythological subject. Mythology was serving two purposes that audience was easily involved with the drama and there was less censorship problem with British authority.
               The theme of ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ is based on the story of Bhakt Prahlad of Hari Vishnu Puran. There are 28 acts in ‘Bhakt Prahlad’. Hirankashyapu is depicted as British Raj indirectly. Many characters in the drama represent the people of society and government administration.
            The dialogues are the major elements of this drama for being very enjoyable. As –
Kaljugyanand – maraj mi par gusa ni howan sarkaar – mi t sab tadna kari chuki ye par bar bar –aur guru ji n bi ye tain dekhaye khoob dhudhkaar fatkar –parantu yel jara bhar ni chhodi bolano narayan hari katari –ya te mahaprabhu ! kuchh aap hi karan ye ko vichar –ham to hoi gayan ye tain bilkul lachaar
  Though, there is less difference in languages spoken by various characters but the dialogues create the desired image of each character.
Jimidar – bin pani huye baanji saar, beej bi khaayiyan kistmar
Gothun goru gay gothyar , mai jimidar ji main jimidar ji
          The dialogues create characterization and attack on wrong happenings either in the society or in state administration.
   There are relevant lyrics in the drama. According to eminent Garhwali prose research scholar Dr Anil Dabral, the lyrics are very sharp and accelerate the speed of the drama.
  The play is still relevant and the play has potentiality for making a feature film too. Bhavani Datt Thapliyal created a drama culture for modern Garhwali language. Bhavani Datt proved that drama is the best medium for showing the good and bad happening in the society.
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti
Notes on Garhwali Stage Plays, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Stage Plays to be continued …..

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Shilanyas: a Garhwali Drama for Public Awareness

Shilanyas: a Garhwali Drama for Public Awareness
 (Review of Garhwali Drama ‘Shilanyas’ by Girish Sundariyal)
(Notes on Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Drama, Uttarakhandi Drama, Himalayan Drama)
                                         Bhishm Kukreti
           Girish Sundariyal is famous poet of Garhwali. Recently Girish published a collection of five Garhwali plays ‘Asgar’.  ‘Shilanyas ‘is one of those five Garhwali plays.
                     Being a teacher, Girish would definitely want that there should be a drama for younger generation. ‘Shilanyas’ is written purely keeping in mind youth.  The drama is based on the value of Shramdan (cooperative way of constructing a public infrastructure).
               Chaundkot is famous for constructing a forty miles motor road by public without any government aid at the time of British Raj through the Shramdan system.
            The story of ‘Shilyanyas’ is simple that a married young woman Sooma dies because of an accident, delaying due to no fast transport availability  and not getting proper treatment at government hospital which is far away from the accident place.
              The people of the said village decide to take matter to government officers for constructing motor road that from future people get facilities. The villagers become surprised that on paper, there is already a motor road constructed by government.
              People of village talk about famous Chaundkot road constructed by public and they start the road construction by way of Shramdan.
               The drama is well knitted and is capable of offering a message without any complexity. There are characters from all age and class and are from the real life.
             Girish kept in mind in the drama that avoiders create complainers, complainers create avoiders and the right goal communicated properly creates achievers.  
           The dialogues are from day to day uses and can create enthusiasm among the audience.
                The drama writer is successful in creating the importance of people’s contribution in public utility.
‘Asgar’ a Garhwali drama collection  
By Girish Sundariyal (2011)
Himalay Lok Sahity evam sanskriti Vikas Trust
A-16, Rakshapuram,
Ladpur P.O Raipur

Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti
Notes on Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Drama, Uttarakhandi Drama, Himalayan Drama to be continued……

Monday, February 27, 2012

Panch Sal Bad: A Political Satirical Drama

Panch Sal Bad: A Political Satirical Garhwali Drama
(Review of ‘Panch Sal Bad ‘a drama by Girish Sundariyal)
(Notes on Garhwali drama, Kumauni drama, Uttarakhandi drama, Himalayan drama)
                                              Bhishm Kukreti

               Politics is part of our social system. Therefore, there are plays related to politics in India and Garhwali plays are not exceptions. Since, society is part of politics the dramatists involve people in creating political plays but scenes of political manipulating are more in the drama.. Bhishm Kukreti’s play ‘Bakharon Gwer Syalu’ is such play where political manipulations get more importance than the society’s actions. The play ‘ Panch sal bad’ by Girish Sundariyal keeps balance between the political maneuvering and the actions of people against political maneuvering .
            The drama ‘Panch sal Bad’ is about election campaign of various political leaders in a Garhwali village. The writer discloses political maneuvering of each candidate and the social behavior at the time of election. At the end public become united to fight the poisonous concept of fight among two major casts ‘Rajput and Brahmin’ spread by cunning politicians.
           Girish used didactic and comedy methods for showing the maneuvering of politicians in the drama.
             Girish chooses typical characters as ‘chamche (followers of politicians) ‘Jhanjhi’ or alcoholics to develop his theme and for creating humor and satire in the drama. The typical characters as old man ‘Bwada’, women and teachers   become the medium of didactic methodology in ‘Panch sal’ by Girish.
                   Girish had been successful in inserting satirical remarks though way of using old proverbs and coined proverbs or phrases as
‘tu to Sali baith baith ke chhajja ke pthle chifli kar rahi hai aur mai rat din khairi khake ..
Par raati rat kai dala par lagine si rupyaa
Chunau k mausam ch , ibre t sukhaa dala par bhi paat ai jandan.
                  Girish takes care that there is poetic flow in the conversation as
Ghapkaltal parti k shandaar, ar jandaar-ummedvar bhai bakhtwaar ! ji han khandani thokdar, kauthgou ja fandar , e gred ka thykedar bhai Bakhtwar, jaunka hcunau chinh ch markhwalyaa bijwaar …
              Girish has been thriving in using comedic conventions for exposing sophistry and moral insensibilities of contemporary political figures. Girish is unbeaten on ridiculing the whole political system and selfishness of politicians. Girish not only tells the history of contemporary politics but speaks about the truth about the human nature too in this drama. The witty dialogues of ‘Panch sal bad’ drama are there to involve people in the drama. The drama is created with an assumption that the writer and his audience know much about today’s political process of election.
             The readers/audience of the drama can feel the message and strong opinion beneath the surface of laughable and bitter nonsense.
            Girish Sundariyal portrayed the lies, greed, stupidity and ego effectively in the drama.
           The characterizations of characters are fine and writer is careful for different languages used by characters are different than others.
                 The story is simple and audience is well aware of such incidents shown in the drama.
          There are moments of struggle, dilemmas, in the drama which make the drama interesting.
             Usually, Garhwali dramas of subject related to  rural areas are staged in the metros or cities. In my opinion t he drama ‘Panch sal Bad should be played more in rural areas than urban areas. Barring more numbers of characters, the drama does not need complicated production properties.

Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti
Notes on Garhwali drama, Kumauni drama, Uttarakhandi drama, Himalayan drama to be continued …

Bharti: a Garhwali Drama Teaching Morality

Bharti: a Garhwali Drama Teaching Morality
        (Review of Bharti’ Drama by Girish Sundariyal)
(Review of Garhwali Drama, Kumauni stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Plays, Himalayan Dramas)

                      Bhishm Kukreti
   In any society moral teaching drama creations are must. Girish Sundariyal showed his creative responsibility by writing ‘Bharti’ drama in Garhwali. The expertise of Girish is that without preaching speeches, the drama is successful in depicting a moral teaching drama ‘Bharti’
   The drama ‘Bharti’ is about hopes, aspiration of youth of a Garhwali village entering into Indian Army services. Four young boys visit Kalon dando or Lansdowne for interview. Only one young guy gets entry into Indian armed force and three can’t get. The reason is obvious.
  The story is about real incidents happening in Garhwal. The writer is successful in showing aspirations, hopes and frustrations of unemployment or not getting proper counseling in the village to young generation required in the globalization era.  Due to not getting proper counseling young boys do not pass interviews and become frustrated. The frustration takes them for consuming alcohol.
  The construction of drama is very crispy and dialogues are day to day conversation. The dialogues are having humor, proverbs those make the drama attractive.
  The scenes of interview taken by military administration seem to be very realistic.
  ‘Bharti’ drama offers a teaching at the end. The writer tries to make drama as realistic as it can be.
Bharti drama is one the five dramas from ‘Asgar’ a Garhwali drama collection by Girish Sundariyal.
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti
Review of Garhwali Drama, Kumauni stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Plays, Himalayan Dramas to be continued ……

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Difference among Kumauni and Garhwali Words

Kumaoni Grammar
Garhwali Grammar
Uttarakhandi Grammar
Nepali Grammar
Grammar of Mid Himalayan Languages
मध्य हिमालयी कुमाउंनी , गढ़वाली एवं नेपाली भाषा-व्याकरण का तुलनात्मक अध्ययन भाग -43
Comparative Comparative Study of Kumaoni Grammar,Garhwali Grammar,Uttarakhandi Grammar,Nepali Grammar ,Grammar of Himalayan Languages-Part-43
सम्पादन : भीष्म कुकरेती
Edited by Bhishm Kukreti
Kumauni and Garhwali Agriculture Related Words - 2
हिंदी ---------------------------कुमाउंनी ----------------------------गढ़वाली
खोदना -------------------------खणनो/खड़ण -----------------------खणन
आँगन/ खलिहान -----------------------खलो/खच --------------------------चौक/खल्याण
ढेर ---------------------------------------खात--------------------------------ढेरि
फसल ------------------------------------खेति---------------------------------खेति /खेति-पाति
कान्जिघर ---------------------------------खोड़---------------------------------- खोड़ (पशुओं को बाँधने का बाड़ा )
अनाज रखने का पात्र विशेष --------------गड़ेलि---------------------------------दबल ( बांस का बड़ा पात्र) , पितक (मालू का पात्र)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------खुई (बीज रखने का रिंगाल से बना पात्र)
घास /चारे का बोझ--------------------------गढालो ------------------------------गडोळा /गडोळि (छोटा गट्ठर ), बिठक (बड़ा गट्ठर )
गेंहू ---------------------------------------ग्यूं-----------------------------------------ग्यूं
गेंहू के खेत -------------------------------ग्युंवड़ -----------------------------------ग्युंवड़
अनाज के दाने -----------------------------गुदा -------------------------------------(समयानुसार बदल जाते हैं - अनाज /दाण/बीज
एक बार की समाविष्टि ------------------घांत ----------------------------------------घत
चने ---------------------------------------चान्नौ/चाण ------------------------------चणा , चाणा
भूसा --------------------------------------चिलौ -------------------गढ़वाली में बीज निकालने के बाद का गेंहूजौ की डंठल को चिलौ और
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------भूसे को बूस/बूसू
दोपहर ------------------------------------छकाल ------------------------------------ दुफरा
बीज डालना -------------------------------छड़नो/छड़ण -------------------------------बूण
हल जोतना -------------------------------------जोतनो/जोतण-------------------------जुतण
जौ की फसल वाला खेत -----------------------जंवाडि (ड़ पढ़ें )------------------------जौवड़ /जवड़
कांटेदार झाडी -----------------------------झिकोड़ो (एक अर्थ झगड़ा भी)---------गढ़वाली में झिंकड़ झाड़ीदार पेड के भाग को कहते हैं
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------अधिकतर चचिंडा /ककड़ी /तोरी के बेलों को चढाने हेतु झिंकड़ इस्तेमाल होते हैं
कांटेदार पौधे जो खेत में उगते हैं ---------झिपा-------------------------------------कांडु बुट्या
मध्य हिमालयी कुमाउंनी , गढ़वाली एवं नेपाली भाषा-व्याकरण का तुलनात्मक अध्ययन भाग -42
Comparative Comparative Study of Kumaoni Grammar,Garhwali Grammar,Uttarakhandi Grammar,Nepali Grammar ,Grammar of Himalayan Languages-Part-42
सम्पादन : भीष्म कुकरेती
Edited by Bhishm Kukreti
Kumauni and Garhwali Agriculture Related Words - 1
कृषि सम्बन्धित कुमाउंनी एवम गढ़वाली शब्द- १
हिंदी -----------------------------कुमाउंनी ------------------गढ़वाली
साझा बटोइ पर--------------------अधेलो -------------------------अधेळ
अकुशल --------------------------आशिपालु-------------------अयाणु
लोहार की कार्यशाला------------------आँफर ---------------------- अणसाळ
हंसिया ---------------------------------आंशि ------------------------दाथी
नमी ------------------------------------आद--------------------------आलि/आलु
मेंड---------------------------------------इचोलो /इचीव--------------मींड
हल का हत्था----------------------------उगौ-------------------------हत्ता/ हतेंडु
लम्बाई में खेत के किनारे --------------ऊंगपूंग --------------------चूंच
जड़ से उखाड़ना -------------------------उपाड़नो/उपाड़ण---------उपाड़ण/उपाड़णो/उपाडन
भुनी हुई गेंहू की बालें ------------------उमा------------------------ऊमी /ऊम
एकत्रित करना --------------------एक बट्यनो/एक बट्युण-------इकबटोळण/बट्वळण
लगातार --------------------------एक मल्या-----------------------इखारि
ऊखल -----------------------------ओखल --------------------------उर्ख्यळु/ उर्ख्यळ/उर्ख्याळि
एक शाक जिसके बीज ---------- ओगल-----------------------------ओगळ
का आटा बनाया जाता है
खेतों में सीमासुच्क पत्थर ------------ओड़ो------------------------वाड/वाडु
चावल के टूटे/कटे छोटे कण/गेंहू ------------कनका ------------------कणखिल/कणखा
खेती करना ---------------------------कमूनो-------------------------कमा
छोटा खेत -----------------------------काति /कात्तो----------------क़तर
श्रमिक -------------------------------कामदार --------------------खेत्वाळु
खूंटा ------------------------------किलो-----------------------------कील
मुर्गी -------------------------------कुकड़ो---------------------------कुकड़ो/कुखड़
गुड़ाई में काम आने वाला औजार ---कुट्टी ------------------------ कुटळ /कूटी
गूल, नहर----------------------------कुलो -------------------------कूल
सिंचाई करना ------------------------कुल्यूनो--------------------कुल्याण
कांटेदार झाड़ियाँ जिन्हें --------------केड़ो------------------------आड़ /आडु
काट कर जला दिया जाता है
सवाया जैसा अनाज -------------------कौंनो ---------------------कौणि
सन्दर्भ -
- अबंधु बहुगुणा , १९६० , गढ़वाली व्याकरण की रूप रेखा, गढ़वाल साहित्य मंडल , दिल्ली ( Structure of Garhwali Grammar)
२- बाल कृष्ण बाल , स्ट्रक्चर ऑफ़ नेपाली ग्रैमर , मदन पुरूस्कार, पुस्तकालय , नेपाल (Structure of Nepali Grammar)
३- डा. भवानी दत्त उप्रेती , १९७६, कुमाउंनी भाषा अध्ययन, कुमाउंनी समिति, इलाहाबाद (Study of Kumauni Language Grammar)
४- रजनी कुकरेती, २०१०, गढ़वाली भाषा का व्याकरण, विनसर पब्लिशिंग कं. देहरादून ( Grammar of Garhwali Language)
५- कन्हयालाल डंड़रियाल , गढ़वाली शब्दकोश, २०११-२०१२ , शैलवाणी साप्ताहिक, कोटद्वार, में लम्बी लेखमाला (Garhwali- Hindi Dcitionary)
६- अरविन्द पुरोहित , बीना बेंजवाल , २००७, गढ़वाली -हिंदी शब्दकोश , विनसर प्रकाशन, देहरादून (Garhwali hindi Dictionary )
७- श्री एम्'एस. मेहता (मेरा पहाड़ ) से बातचीत
८- श्रीमती हीरा देवी नयाल (पालूड़ी, बेलधार , अल्मोड़ा) , मुंबई से कुमाउंनी शब्दों के बारे में बातचीत
९- श्रीमती शकुंतला देवी , अछ्ब, पन्द्र-बीस क्षेत्र, , नेपाल, नेपाली भाषा सम्बन्धित पूछताछ
१० - भूपति ढकाल , १९८७ , नेपाली व्याकरण को संक्षिप्त दिग्दर्शन , रत्न पुस्तक , भण्डार, नेपाल (Briefs on Nepali Grammar)
११- कृष्ण प्रसाद पराजुली , १९८४, राम्रो रचना , मीठो नेपाली, सहयोगी प्रेस, नेपाल (Nepali Grammar)
१२- चन्द्र मोहन रतूड़ी , गढ़वाली कवितावली ( सं. तारा दत्त गैरोला, प्र. विश्वम्बर दत्त चंदोला) , १९३४, १९८९
Comparative Study of Kumauni Grammar , Garhwali Grammar and Nepali Grammar (Grammar of , Mid Himalayan Languages ) to be continued ........
. @ मध्य हिमालयी भाषा संरक्षण समिति

Aili Meri Paudi? : A Drama Attacking on Corrupt Practices

Aili Meri Paudi? : A Garhwali Drama Attacking on Corrupt Practices in Government Administration

   (Review of ‘Aili Meri Paudi?’ drama written by Girish Sundariyal)
           (Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage show, Himalayan Dramas)

                                        Bhishm Kukreti
 These days, satire is very common in Garhwali poetry, prose, story, films or in stage plays. The Garhwali creative understand very well their role as critics of their societies and happening in government administration.   As African contemporary writers are also conscious about wrong happenings in Africa (Lokangaka Losambe and Devi Sarinjeiv, 2001, Pre and Post colonial Drama and Theatre in Africa, pp.53), the Garhwali writers are disturbed eyewitnesses of corruption, evil methods in government-administration, exploitation, injustice, ridiculousness around them.  The Garhwali drama writers of twenty first century    as Kula Nand Ghansla, Bhishm Kukreti , Narendra Kathait and  Girish Sundariyal preferred satire as best tool for showing ridicules in the society and in government administration. The dramas of recent dramatists definitely are tools for restoring indigenous language, language promotion and language protection simultaneously.   
            Aili Meri Paudi? is one of the five dramas from drama collection ‘Asgar’ by Girish Sundariyal (2011) .      ‘Aili Meri Paudi?’ drama by famous Garhwali poet Girish Sundariyal is about an old widow of an army soldier not getting her pension. She found that she is not getting pension because according to government papers she is not alive but is dead. She visits pension-office at Paudi the capital of Paudi Garhwal. There she meets staff from peon to chief officer.  The audience experience the selfishness of government staff; ill treatment and insensitive behaviors of government staff towards the weak people as an old widow; no botheration by government workers for serving people but worried about their income and recreation; red tapes in government offices.  The audience experiences the torture and agony of a widow in the drama.
 The characterization is perfect in this drama by Sundariyal and is successful in showing the putrefying system in government offices which are becoming ant-people.
 The specialty of this drama is its well written dialogues. The dialogues are small and fit to characters. The conversation looks like daily life conversation.
The last dialogue ‘ Aili meri Paudi?’  is itself very attentive as it has multi meanings – Will you come to my Paudi, why did you come to Paudi  or you will get trouble coming to Paudi.
 The director will get pleasure in directing the well constructed drama ‘Aili Meri Paudi?’ by Girish Sundariyal.

Copyright @ Bhishm Kukreti
Popular Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Dramas to be continued ….

Adalat: A Realistic Garhwali Drama

Adalat: A Realistic Garhwali Drama
        (Review of Adalat a Garhwali Drama by Swarup Dhoundiyal)
(Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Playwrights)  
                          Bhishm Kukreti

                Bhavani Datt Thapliyal initiated writing and staging Modern Garhwali drama (Prhalad and Jay-Vijay). No doubt the subject and dialogues of Prahlad are related to society but on the back the background is religious in nature. The dramas staged at government built drama building in Tihri; dramas of Ghana Nand Bahuguna, drama Vasanti by Vishwambar Datt Uniyal ,  Professor Bhagwati Prasad Panthari; or popular drama written by Jeet Singh Negi were idealistic in nature. The dramas of Lalit Mohan Thapliyal were humorous and satirical dramas with certain kind of loudness too. The dramatists entered in the Garhwali dramatic field after Lalit M Thapliyal as, Parashar Gaud, ‘Kankal’, Virendra Mohan Raturi, Kishor Ghildiyal, Damodar Thapliyal, Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh were influenced by orthodox disciplines of Indian dramas. Or it is said that those dramas were not on the tune of realistic dramas as the general movement of realism of western countries.
               The dramas Jank Jod (1975) and Ardhgrameshwar  (1976) by Rajendra Dhashmana were nearer to realism but the drama critics as Dr. Sudha Rani did not put these dramas in the category of realistic dramas as dramas of realism movement dramatists Aleksey Pisemsky, Leo Tolstoy, Chekhov et.
Afew critics categorized dramas of Dhashmana as modern look, experimental dramas or the dramas those broke the conventional ways of stage plays of Garhwali dramas. However, there is no doubt that Dhashmana brought modernization and real subject into modern Garhwali drama.
    Influenced by the response of audience and appreciation from non Garhwali crtics about Ardhgrameshwar, Swarup Dhoundiyal a famous Hindi fiction writer of his time wrote a Garhwali drama ‘Adalat’.  Adalat was staged in Delhi first time in the year 1978. The drama was staged eight times in Delhi. The dram was also staged in Mumbai and a few places of Garhwal as Synsi.
 The drama is truly a realistic Garhwali drama.
   The story is about tension among the family members of Garhwal of sixties and self perplexity of each family member. Everybody asks justice from the society (not shown directly) as everybody feels that she or he is right on her/his part as a family member.
          Keshar Singh is a peon in Chandigarh whose parents, wife and his child are in village. Parents of Keshar singh had to sell ancestral agriculture –fields at the time of study and marriage of Keshar Singh.  His income is not much that his parents could repay the debts of Daulat Ram. Keshar Singh has come to his village from Chandigarh and wants to take his wife with him to Chandigarh. His parents don’t want that he takes his wife to Chandigarh as they are quite old. Wife of Keshar Singh is unhappy about small –small accusations from her mother in law. Other characters are there to show the tension among family members.
 The drama is having real subject of Garhwal before seventies when migrated young or older males wanted to take their families to their working places and elders of the family wanted that Bahus/daughter in laws should be in the village.
         The situation and dialogues are totally realistic and least idealism is shown in the drama.
 Swarup Dhoundiyal used daily use dialogues and the drama is the real mirror of villages of Garhwal of pre seventies.
  Swarup Dhoundiyal brought aspects of realism in Garhwali drama as true characters, dilemmas of real characters. Dhoundiyal had been successful in creating direct attention of social and psychological problems of ordinary life. Most of the scenes are true mirror of life.  Keshar Singh and his wife at different time asking judgment (from whom?) is nothing but characters unable arriving at answers to their predicaments.
  Swarup Dhoundiyal will always be remembered in Garhwali drama world for bringing realism in Garhwali drama.  History will always remember late Swarup Dhoundiyal for strengthening realism in Garhwali drama world as people remember realistic dramatists Ibsen, Chekhov, Arthur Miller, O. Neil Athol Fugard, Oriel Gray, Inez Bensusan, Oscar Kightley,  Perez Galdos, etc.
Garhwali Drama, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Playwrights to be continued….

Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti