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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

First Rajput Breaking Brahminical Monopoly in Garhwali Poetry

Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht: First Rajput Breaking Brahminical Monopoly in Garhwali Poetry
Critical and Chronological History of Modern Garhwali (Asian) Poetry – 14

                    Literature Historian:  Bhishma Kukreti
         This author can state authentically that no male upper caste Brahmin (Chauth , Saryul)  would have created any Garhwali Folk Song before British period. Usually in Garhwal, Shilpkar, Badi, Mirasi, or common females used to create Folk Songs and Upper Level Brahmins used to perceive Folk Song creation as insult to their pride of being upper level Brahmins.
           However, Saryul Brahmins and those Brahmins those were with Tehri Court came forward for creating Modern Garhwali Poetries. Upper Level Brahmins of Uttarakhand also collected and edited Folklores, Folktales, Folk Proverbs of Garhwal-Kumaon as Ganga Datt Upreti and Tota Ram Gairola.
           The reason behind upper level Brahmins coming in Modern Garhwali Poetry world was quite obvious. Upper Level Brahmins have family traditions of learning Sanskrit from their old generation and then teaching Sanskrit to new generation. There was no such tradition of Sanskrit teaching and learning among low level Brahmin castes, Rajput and Shilpkar communities. When British administration started opening primary schools British administration offered upper level Brahmins as teachers. Eventually at initial stage, upper level Brahmin students entered into school. Therefore, upper level Brahmins came into Modern Garhwali Poetry field of initial stage.
              The editor and Publisher of Gadhu Sumyal was born in village Badkholu, Manyarsyun , Pauri Garhwal in 1833 and expired in 1933
    Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht was first Rajput who entered into Garhwali Poetry field.  Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht collected folklores, edited and published ‘Gadhu Sumyal’ in 1928 under ‘Gaarhveer –Charitodaya Granthamala’ series. Shiv Narayan Singh published Garhu Sumyal folklore from Agra Press, Agara . Shiv Narayan Singh was a shopkeeper in Gumkhal and he arranged distribution of book from Banghat (confluence of Purvi Nayar and pashchmai Nayar Rivers) and Gumkhal. Bisht did not alter much the folklore wordings but he corrected the same as per contemporary grammar.
    According to Great Historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral the story is of 15th century.
Gadhu Sumyal is one of the great, brave folk legends of Kumaon and Garhwal. Uttarakhand cultural historian Dr. Dinesh Baluni states that Gadhu Sumyal was contemporary of Kumaoni king Gyan Chand (1374-1419AD).Gadhu Sumyal was son of Rudi Bhad..
              Gadhu Sumyal was great brave man of Khimsari Hat. His father and forefathers were brave Bhad. Once, there was worse famine in the region. People started starving. Children died on their mother’s hands. Women became widow. There was severe food shortage in the hose of Gadhu Sumyal.
           Gadhu Sumyal suggested his mother Lilavati to migrate for Aruni forest.  Mother and son started living on forest produces. Lilavati remembers the buffalos and cows of Deepu the elder uncle of Gadhu. She advised Gadhu Sumyal to bring buffalo of Dipu by bartering her necklace. Gadhu went to his elder uncle with his mother’s necklace. Gadhu asks Dipu of Dipkot to give milk producing buffalo against gold necklace. Dipu got conspiracy idea to kill Gadhu Sumyal. Dipu tells his conspiracy idea to his sons. Dipu sent Gadhu Sumyal to jungle for taking buffalo. Gadhu went to jungle and sons of Dipu followed him. Sons of Dipu threw big stones on Gadhu Sumyal.  Gadhu Sumyal caught their hands and asked for buffalo. They gave buffalo to him. Gadhu Sumyal returned to Aruni forest taking buffalo on his arms. When Lilavati saw buffalo she started weeping as the buffalo was infertile and she was unable to produce milk. They prayed for god and buffalo started producing milk.
          Gadhu Sumyal was great flute player. One day, he was playing flute in forest. A princess Surma used to live nearby. Surma was attracted to music of flute playing by Gadhu Sumyal and became his lover in her own mind. She searched Gadhu Sumyal for nine days and nine nights.  At last she met Gadhu Sumyal. Gadhu took Surma and went before his mother. Gadhu Sumyal married to Surma. Prosperously, those three started live happily.
              Dip was very jealous seeing Gadhu’s prosperity. Dip thought again to destroy Gadhu Sumyal.  Dip went to his nephew and asked him to collect taxes from Talla Salan and Malla Salan (South of Garhwal is called Salan). Dipu told a lie to Gadhu Sumyal that Salanis killed his father Udi.  Gadhu was angry to hear the story and became ready to take revenge the killing of his father by Salanis.  
              Gadhu became ready with weapons and ammunition. Surma became unhappy to know her husband going to Salan. Surma advised her husband not to go Salan. However, Gadhu Sumyal made her understand.   Surma advised Gadhu not to walk aloof path and without checking not to sit on a cot.    
           Gadhu Sumyal started his journey for Salan by riding on horse.  Salanis came to know arrival of Gadhu Sumyal and they also made strategy to kill him. Salanis dig a long dike and put the cot on it. Gadhu Sumyal came and Salanis offered him to sit on cot. Gadhu checked the cot by his stick and found the conspiracy.  Gadhu Sumyal killed his enemies by swords. After winning Gadhu Sumyal added new taxes.
           There in Dipokot, Dipu made another conspiracy. He gave gold coins to maternal uncle of Surma and wanted to make Surma as his son’s wife. Surma’s maternal uncle called Surma to Dipkot. The marriage procession was ready. By any means, Surma was sat into Pinas.  The servants started to take Surma on Pinas.  Surma saw Gadhu cooking food. She threw stones on cooking food.  Gadhu recognized hands of his wife Surma.
       Gadhu reached to Pinas. Surma told the real story. Gadhu Sumyal became angry. Gadhu Sumyal killed Dipu and his seven sons.
  After killing enemies, Gadhu Sumyal reached Khimsari hat and met his mother. Surma touched her mother in law’s feet. There was joy ever where in Khimsari hat. Happily, joyfully all congratulated Gadhu Sumyal.

       सरू -कुमैण -  एक प्रणय जागर गाथा  
(गढ़ सुम्याळ  का एक भाग )
(सन्दर्भ :शिव नारायण सिंह बिष्ट -गढु  सुम्याळ, 1928, आगरा प्रेस आगरा में प्रिंट एवं बांघाट  गूमखाळ  से वितरित   )

 अब गंगोलीघाट रौंद बाबा सरू-कुमैण
अब ज्वा सरू -कुमैण हात नि लियेंदी भुयें नि धरेंदी
रमकदी बाहें छमकदी चूड़ी
जिरैलो पिंडो नौन्याळो  गाथो
जैको  खंखरियाळो  माथो 
बड़ी रूपवान  -वा सरू कुमैण
बारा बर्स  की सरू  होली भरपूर ज्वान
बंसुरी की धुन ले सरू मोहित ह्वे गय
धन तेरा भाग बाबा ! कै देस का ह्वेल्यो
को  बजया ?' बोद मूर्छा हवे गय
xxx     xxx
जंगळ जटिया गढ़ु मरमिट खसिया
अब वा सरू कुमैण देखिक गढू का घाबड़ी लगौन्द
अब सै ह्वै जा बैख मेरी बंसी बजैया
अब बारा बीसी भैंसी जैकी चौंकण लगीन 
गढू सुम्याळ जागर :भडौ , कटकूभड़वळि    या पांवड़ा 
सन्दर्भशिव नारायण सिंह बिष्ट , गढ़ु सुम्याळऔर हरी दत्त भट शैलेश  )

खिमसारी हाट रंदो गढू सुम्याळ,मालू मा को माल होलो वो सुम्याळ
तखरिया माल होलू गढू  सुम्याळ
जैका बाबू , दादान तलवारी मारे वैका  बेटा बि तरखार मारी लालो खिमसारी हाट मा पड़े घुरमी अकाळ
तड़फी तड़फी मरीन लोग उखड़ सी माछा जागु जागु पड़ीन डाला का सा गेंडा स्वागीण रांड ह्वैन   कोली का रीन बाला ज्वाती नी भुंचा कैनजिंदगी नी भोगी तड़ी -तपड़ी करीकमाई सब खाई याले भूख मरण लगै गढू सुम्याळ
चल मेरी जिया , लीला देइ आरुणी जंगल जौला , जड़ी बूटी खौला माता लेक तब गढू , माल ऐगे आरुणी जंगल
xxx    xxx 
तब दीपकोट मा वैन कोटू बोणो कर याले बैरी को एक नि रखे रिझाना को सी शेष तब सुरमा लीक , गढ़ु सुम्याळ
खिमसारी  ऐगे माता ने बालो भेंटे ब्वारीन सासु का पैर छुंयाँ खिमसारी कोट माबड़ो आनंद बढ़ मर्द मरी गैन , बोल रई गैन मर्दु का पंवाडा , गाया गैन     

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, May 2016
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British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -1

 Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -284
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -813          
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                              Ochterlony Marching to Himachal  
           British High Command made Ochterlony responsible for winning Gurkha in Himachal region by fighting with Amar Singh Thapa.   Hastings had a guess that after defeat of Nepal in Gorakhpur, Dehradun and Kumaon, Amar Singh Thapa would march from Himachal to Nepal for defending Nepal. Hastings guessed that main job of Ochterlony would be to follow Amar Singh Thapa than head on. However, Amar Singh Thapa was confident that Nepal army was enough for defending Nepal from British attack.  Amar Singh Thapa was bent for defending the territory of West of Garhwal and Himachal that he won in past. Amar Singh Thapa was the real king without crown of Garhwal and Himachal for last 11 years.  Kaji Bakhtwar Basnet in Shrinagar and Kaji ranjor Singh Thapa in Nahan were ruling under Amar Singh Thapa.
  In the end week of October 1814, Ochterlony marched from Ropad Camp for Himachal. Ochterlony had following armed force-
Indian artillery battalions – 4.5
Indian Horsemen army  battalion- 2
Pioneers Companies- 2
Gun artilleries – 1
Loaders, gun loaders, animal takers etc – 6000
          Besides the above, 4000 soldiers from other states were supposed to go with Ochterlony. There were 3000 civilians and 6000 camp servants too.
           It was guessed that there were 7000 soldiers with Amar Singh Thapa. Premble assumed 5000 soldiers.
 Around 18000 personnel marched with Ochterlony. There was shortage of loaders and animal care takers. Many loaders started running away from the army. Therefore, Ochterlony bought 5000 bulls.  
   For 4-5 years, Ochterlony was having eyes on the strength and weaknesses of Amar Singh Thapa and his army.  Ochterlony was aware that winning Amar Singh Thapa, it required patience, hard work in hill terrain, different power and Guns. Therefore, Ochterlony took following guns with him-
18 Pound guns- 2
6 pound guns- 6
Heavy Howitzers- 2
Heavy Mortars- 2
  Amar Singh Thapa was stationed at Arki. There was full protection for the camp. Mahachand the  king of Bilaspur  adjascent to Thapa territory was friend of Thapa. Food supply was easily availavle from Bilaspur region. Therefore, Amar Singh Thapa did not change his head quarter.

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -814
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal