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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -1

 Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -284
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -813          
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                              Ochterlony Marching to Himachal  
           British High Command made Ochterlony responsible for winning Gurkha in Himachal region by fighting with Amar Singh Thapa.   Hastings had a guess that after defeat of Nepal in Gorakhpur, Dehradun and Kumaon, Amar Singh Thapa would march from Himachal to Nepal for defending Nepal. Hastings guessed that main job of Ochterlony would be to follow Amar Singh Thapa than head on. However, Amar Singh Thapa was confident that Nepal army was enough for defending Nepal from British attack.  Amar Singh Thapa was bent for defending the territory of West of Garhwal and Himachal that he won in past. Amar Singh Thapa was the real king without crown of Garhwal and Himachal for last 11 years.  Kaji Bakhtwar Basnet in Shrinagar and Kaji ranjor Singh Thapa in Nahan were ruling under Amar Singh Thapa.
  In the end week of October 1814, Ochterlony marched from Ropad Camp for Himachal. Ochterlony had following armed force-
Indian artillery battalions – 4.5
Indian Horsemen army  battalion- 2
Pioneers Companies- 2
Gun artilleries – 1
Loaders, gun loaders, animal takers etc – 6000
          Besides the above, 4000 soldiers from other states were supposed to go with Ochterlony. There were 3000 civilians and 6000 camp servants too.
           It was guessed that there were 7000 soldiers with Amar Singh Thapa. Premble assumed 5000 soldiers.
 Around 18000 personnel marched with Ochterlony. There was shortage of loaders and animal care takers. Many loaders started running away from the army. Therefore, Ochterlony bought 5000 bulls.  
   For 4-5 years, Ochterlony was having eyes on the strength and weaknesses of Amar Singh Thapa and his army.  Ochterlony was aware that winning Amar Singh Thapa, it required patience, hard work in hill terrain, different power and Guns. Therefore, Ochterlony took following guns with him-
18 Pound guns- 2
6 pound guns- 6
Heavy Howitzers- 2
Heavy Mortars- 2
  Amar Singh Thapa was stationed at Arki. There was full protection for the camp. Mahachand the  king of Bilaspur  adjascent to Thapa territory was friend of Thapa. Food supply was easily availavle from Bilaspur region. Therefore, Amar Singh Thapa did not change his head quarter.

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -814
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal