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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, February 1, 2016

Appointment of Colonel William Gardner

History British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -5

Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -218

             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -746                                                         
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
                                                    
              Edward Gardner had information that as soon as British army would enter into Kumaon the Kumaon People would revolt against Gurkha/Nepal rulers. Colonel Gardner was aware that it was better to attack before the rebellion sentiments of Kumaunis calm down against Gurkha/Nepal rulers.  When Governor General was visiting north States, Gardner informed his friend Adam that Kumaunis were waiting for British Army.
 The cosine of Edward Gardner was Lieutenant Colonel William Gardner who in 1795, worked with British army under Earl of Mayoral. Hastings was his colleague. William Gardner left British army and joined Holkar Kingdom. In 1804, William deceived Holkar and rejoined British army.  British officials appointed William as head of temporary Cavalry Army .That temporary company was named as Gardner Horses.   William Gardner married Matmurjulunissa Begum (daughter of Ex Nabab of Cambey). Matmurjulunissa Begum was sister of Khanun Jahurulnissa the wife of Hearsay. Both the sisters were adopted daughters of Delhi King Akbar II. Badshah gifted Gardner the Jamaindari of Kasganj.
    Hastings used to promoted old devotee British army Officials. Hastings appointed William Gardner as in charge of Capturing Kumaon from Gurkha/Nepal. Hastings ordered William Gardner for appointing 1500 Pathan and Rohilla soldiers under him.

(From writings of Atkinson, Sanwal, Saxsena,  Fraser etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/1//2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -747
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika

History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

छुमा बौ एक प्रतीकात्मक नाम है

इंटरनेट प्रस्तुति - भीष्म कुकरेती 

आज मेरे पुराने मित्र व पाठक उद्योगपति श्री दयानंद द्विवेदी जी ने छुमा बौ गीत की फरमायश की मै कोशिस करूंगा कि छुमा बौ से संबंधित सभी गीत इंटरनेट पर प्रस्तुत करूँ।  

प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार डा. शिव प्रसाद नैथाणी ने 'उत्तराखंड लोक संस्कृति और साहित्य ' लेख में छुमा बौ पर अपनी राय दी
उत्तराखंड के लोक गीतों कि नायिकाओं के नाम बहुत कुछ उनकी सामयिकता तत्कालीन युग का परिचय भी दे देते हैं
कत्य्री गाथा में वह उदा है, जोत्रमाला है, मोती माला है , इजुला, बिजुला और राणी जिया है .
उधर उत्तर मध्य काल में उसके नाम हैं सुरु कुमैण, मोतिया, जसी , मलारी और राजुला, किन्तु राजुला से पहले सुरजी हुए थी
रमकणि, छमकणि, बीरू कसी वूंग, कहती मीठी साली होली दाख दाड़िम जसी ....
और इधर पिछली सदी में पहले दौंथा थी, पुरुष 'मेरी दौंथा कथैं गे ' कहकर ढूंढते थे
इस बीच मधुलि भी तो आ गयी थी
'खेली  जाली होली , मदौली मदुली सबि बुल्दन कन मदुली होली' दौंथा के बाद तो छुमा प्रसिद्ध हुयी किन्तु वा तो छुमा बौ के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हो गयी , छुमा बौ कद में कुछ छोटी है , नारंगी सी दाणीसी, गोल मटोल सी, और रंग नारंगी जैसा है, छुमा बौ को पहाड़ी टोपी और मगजी बहुत प्रभावित करती है . भाभी है तो प्रगल्भ भी है इशारा भी करती है
छोटी छोटी छुमा बौ टु नारंगी सी दाणी
रूप कि आन्छरी छुमा, जन ऐना चमलांद
गुड़ खायो माख्योंन , सरा संसार गिच्चन खांदो
तू खांदी आंख्योंन
पीतल कि छनी, पीतल कि छनी मुलमुल हंसदी छुमा
दै खतेणि जन
रोटी क कतर, रोटी क कतर, नथुली को कस लगे
तेरी गल्वाड़ी पर
झंगोरा कि बाल, झंगोरा कि बाल छुमा परसिद ह्व़े गे
सरा गढ़वाल सरा गढ़वाल
छुमा ने प्रसिद्ध तो होंना ही था जिस नथुली के कस कि बात गितांग कर रहा है उस नथुली को हल्का सा हिलाकर छुमा ने अपने प्यार कि स्वीकृति भी दे दी थी पर बुद्धू बहुत देर बाद समझ पाया
टोपी कि मगजी टोपी कि मगजी
नथुली न सान करे तिन णि समझी
सुनने में आया कि बाद में छुमा बौ लछमा के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुयी
आजकल तो छुमा बौ हिंदी फिल्मो से निकल कर गढ़वाल में बसने लगी है और छुमा बौ का गुलबन्द गुम हो ग्या है नथुली हर्च गयी है और छुमा बौ मोबाइल में समाने को आतुर है 

British Luring Nepal Resident Bamshah

British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -4

Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -217

             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -745                                                         
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
 By order of John Adam on 23rd October 1814, Edward Gardner tried to find out whether Kumaon resident Bamshah could come to side of British by deceiving Nepal Government. Gardner was now posted in Moradabad. On that time, in each Indian Kingdom, there were a few Kingdom officers who were ready to come to the side of British and deceive his own Kingdom. Many officers from Bengal, Awadh, and Maratha Kingdoms betrayed, deceived their Kingdoms and came to the side of British.
 British officers were hopeful that Bamshah would betray his Kingdom.
  Gardner sent a faithful and reliable person to Bamshah with a letter in Newari language. The letter stated that if Bamshah wanted to talk with Gardner he could send his thought. That man was in Almora for four days. On night, Bamshah called that person. That reliable person handed over the letter of Gardner to Bamshah. Bamshah read the letter and just said one sentence,” Why so much late?”
Bamshah did not disclose about letter to his aids. Next day, Bamshah handed over a letter in Persian language for Gardner. The letter was about British declaration for Kumaunis.
    Bamshah did not mention anything for coming to the British camp. However, he did not mention about not coming to the British side too. Bamashah did not tell about Gardner’s man meeting hmi.
On 22nd November 1814, Gardner sent separate letters with two reliable Kumaunis for Bamshah. Those two Kumaunis were sent to Almora through different roads.
Edward Gardner wrote letter for Bamshah as follows-
“ As per British government order a few days back, I came here (Moradabad). If you are ready I would like to say something about your benefits. I am sending this reliable hill man to you. If possible you may state your views. Or you may send your aid to me directly. That representative would answer my proposal for you. “
 There was no direct request for Bamshah in the above letter. However, the letter was indicating Bamshah for betrayal.
Bamshah answered, “You are interested about my benefits. I am an obedient employee of Nepal. I wish for friendly relationship between Nepal and British. If you are interested for that proposal I could send a reliable person to you.”
 The above letter is an important letter. Though Bamshah was surrounded by Amar Singh Thapa men in Kumaon but he was not ready for betrayal.
After knowing the letter , John Adam wrote letter to  Gardner,” It is now definite that Bamshah would will not help British for capturing Kumaon.”
 British officers also knew that Bamshah was  appointing Rohilla and Pathan soldiers for future Battle between British and Nepal in Kumaon.
  Even then Gardner was of opinion that Bamshah would help British due to his disagreement with Thapa men in Kumaon. Gardner had opinion that as soon British would attack on Kumaon, Bamshah would join British camp.  


(From writings of Atkinson, Sanwal, Saxsena,  Fraser etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/1//2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -746
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal

British Declaration for Kumaon People

  British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -3

Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -216

             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -744                                                         
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                  Johan Adam the Secretary of East India Company sent a ‘Declaration for Kumaunis ‘ along with a letter on 14thDecember 1814 to Edward Gardner (Moradabad). The declaration was in Persian, Hindustani and English. Adam was asked for translating the ‘Declaration into Kumauni and to be distributed among Kumaunis. There is no Kumauni translation available in English Premutiny Records. In Himalayan Districts vo.l II page 646, Atkinson wrote the transliteration of that declaration as follows –
  British government was watching for many days that Kumaoni people are suffering Gurkha oppressive rule. However, till there were amicable relationship of British with Gurkha, British administration had to have amicable relation with Nepal. British administration had to watch the suppression of Kumaoni People. When Gurkha reached the height of oppression and violence British government had to fight with Gurkha/Nepal and come forward for helping Kumaunis. British Government is eager for freeing Kumaon from oppressive rule of Nepal. British administration sent army to free Kumaon from Gurkha/Nepal rule. Kumaoni people are requested for helping British army. And accept the rule of British Government without any resistance and violence. People could get all rights under British rule and British will protect the wealth and people of Kumaon.
 The above declaration was distributed among Kumaoni. British officers contacted those Kumaunis who were in touch with Rutherford. Harsh Dev Joshi also reached to Kashipur. Harsh Dev Joshi sent letters to influential Kumaoni elites.
           


(From writings of Atkinson, Saxsena,  Fraser etc)  
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/1//2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -745
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal

Friday, January 22, 2016

British Appointing Temporary Soldiers

 British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -2

Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -215
             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -743                                                         
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                Due to need of permanent soldiers for protecting British territory it was not possible for British commanders posting permanent soldiers for Kumaon Campaign. Therefore, Governor General ordered for appointing 1500 temporary soldiers for Kumaon Campaign. Governor General had opinion that British could defeat Gurkha in Kumaon by deploying gunmen, proper supervision of temporary army and support of Kumaon people.
                            Strategies Uses
   Apart from appointing temporary soldiers, British used strategies for winning Kumaon.
1-Stopping Gurkha Army appointing new soldiers
2-Luring Gurkha army soldiers (Non Gurkha and Gurkha both) and taking them in British side
3-Inspiring Kumaunis against Gurkha for revolt
4- Luring Kumaon In Charge Bamshah and getting his secret support for Kumaon Capturing
                              Luring Rohilla Soldiers
 Governor General got information that Gurkha commander Bamshah was preparing hiring Rohilla soldiers from Moradabad, Rampur, and Barelly. By that hundreds of other soldiers would join Gurkha army.
 On 23rd October 1814, Governor Genral send an order that no inhabitant would under British rule would join Gurkha /Nepalese army. He declared that all inhabitants under British rule working with Nepal army should leave Gurkha army by 30th November 1814. British government declared that all ex-Nepal employees would give employment in British government. By that declaration no Rohilla, Pathan joined Gurkha/Nepalese army. Hearsay and Gardner were able for appointing 5000 soldiers from Rampur, Moradabad, and Bareilly. In 1815, 250 Rohila soldiers left Gurkha army and joined British army.


(From writings of Atkinson, Saxsena,  Fraser etc)  
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/1//2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -744
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

British Preparation from Capturing Kumaon

 British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -1

Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -214
             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -742                                                         
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
                   
                                            Benefits from Kumaon Campaign

                    Hastings decided that Kumaon campaign would start after initiation in other regions against Gurkha/Nepalese. Hastings got information that the Kamin/Sayana (Regional and village Chiefs) were against Gurkha rule. There were lesser soldier power and material support in Kumaon with Gurkha army in Kumaon. The soldiers of Gurkha army from Kumaon and Garhwal were deputed towards east and west of Central Himalaya. That is why Hastings decided Kumaon campaign in October 1814.
                The benefits of Kumaon campaign were more. Even if there was no win in Kumaon the Gurkha army power would defused in Kumaon and it was easier for British for capturing Garhwal region. Kumaon campaign would reduce army power of Gurkha for Garhwal camping. The big benefit was that  Amar Singh Thapa would not lead Gurkha army in Kumaon. Kumaon campaign would break communication line and military support between Nepal and Amar Singh Thapa and Gurkha army of Himachal region. If Amar Singh Thapa would come to protect Kathmandu he would be stopped anywhere in Himachal and Garhwal.
          The Kumaon campaign was also beneficial for inspiring Garhwalis and Kumaunis for going against Gurkha army.  Initially, Garhwalis and Kumaunis perceived that British were interested in capturing only plains fo Hill Kingdoms. Kumaon campaign assured Garhwalis and Kumaonis that British was also eager for winning Hill regions too of Hill Kingdoms. Tularam the Kamin of Langoor also sent the letter that if British act against Gurkha in Hill regions Garhwalis would go against Gurkha with full force.

(From writings of Atkinson, Saxsena Fraser etc)  
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/1//2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -743
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal