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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Saturday, July 23, 2016

Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Akela’: Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects in Garhwali Literature

Critical and Chronological History of Modern Garhwali (Asian) Poetry –-56
                    Literature Historian:  Bhishma Kukreti
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       Critics as Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna (1981) criticizes Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Akela’ for his weakness of language in his poems but this author fully supports ‘Akela’ for his using regional dialects of upper Garhwal “Nagpurya’ in his poems . This author always, cautions the intellectuals prose writers as Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna and Bhagwati Nautiyal that by avoiding regionalism in Garhwali literature creation the creative are inclining towards Hindi. This author states that by using regional dialects, the writers can protect purity of Garhwali language. 
Bhagwan Singh ‘Akela’ is famous for his Geet in Garhwali poems. Those Garhwali Geet are melodious and are very attractive in listening them alone and in chorus too.
        Bhawan Singh Rawat ‘Akela’ was born in a Himalayan village Siwai , Nagpur Pargana of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand on 2nd December, 1932.
        Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Aklea’ joined Shipping Corporation of India Mumbai and retired from there. Bhagwan Singh ‘Akela ‘ was one of the famous signatures in Garhwali cultural programs for many decades in Mumbai. Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Akela’ created Geet and used sing them in Garhwali cultural programs of Mumbai and once, he was having thousands of fans in Mumbai . His Geet are always melodious and remind the audience the pain, joy, struggle, delights of rural Garhwali society before independence. Many his fans as Geeta Ram Bhatt praises Bhagwan Sing for his attracting capability to audience by his wording of Geet and is tone in singing them.
       Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Akela ‘ published two Garhwali poetry collection books ‘ ‘Samun’ and ‘Maya Meludi’ .
        The poetries of Bhagwan Singh Rawat are unique in the sense that each poem has strong touch and aroma of Chamoli Garhwal. The readers can feel the pain of separation, the true geographical scenes of Garhwal, love, pathos in the poems of Bhagwan Singh. Bhagwan Singh used vividly the figure of speech, metaphors, symbols, imagery, popular proverbs and sayings of Chamoli Garhwal in his poems.
An example of his poem Ganga Mai --
Shivji ki jata chhodi bagdi tu ai 
Himvanti gunvanti meri ganga mai 
Aundi meri ganga vakh biten jakh dev-sthan
Jakh baramasa kaunla phool phulldan
Bhagwan Singh Rawat ‘Akela’ is also famous for his poem about praising the landscape and people of Uttarakhand as the following poem –
भूमि को बैकुंठ –उत्तराखुंट  ! 

भारत कु सिरताज भैजिसुंदर उत्तराखंड 
वेदूं की वेदान्त भूमि यु अपणु उत्तराखंड 
कुबेर कु नंदन -बण केदारकु काँठु 
बसुधारा कु ठंडो पाणी कैलास कु बाटो 
रंग -रंगीलु हर्युं -भर्युं भूमि कु बैकुंठ 
सरजू पाणी काळो डांडी न्यारुं की भूमि 
बागेश्वर नैनीताल नंदा की त्रिशुली रंग -रंगीलु हर्युं -भर्युं भूमि कु बैकुंठ
पिंडारी बण अलकापुरी ताल भीमताल 
रौंतेलु कूर्माचल अपणु गीतुं कु गढ़वाळ
रंग -रंगीलु हर्युं -भर्युं भूमि कु बैकुंठ 
गंगा गौमुख केशर क्यारी फूलूं का बगवान
झर झर झरणा गुण गुण भौंरा कस्तूरी मृग छन रंग -रंगीलु हर्युं -भर्युं भूमि कु बैकुंठ

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साभार --शैलवाणी अंग्वाळ )
 
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Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai; 2016
Critical and Chronological History of Asian  Modern Garhwali Folk Songs Strong Supporter of Regional DialectsCritical and Chronological History of Modern Garhwali Folk Verses Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Critical and Chronological History of Asian Modern Poetries; Poems Contemporary Poetries; Contemporary folk Poetries from GarhwalStrong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Development of Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; Poems; Critical and Chronological History of South Asian    Modern Garhwali Folk Verses Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Modern Poetries; Contemporary Poetries Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;; Contemporary folk Poetries Poems  from Pauri Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; Modern Garhwali Folk Verses; Poems Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;; Modern Poetries; Contemporary Poetries Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;; Contemporary folk Poetries from Chamoli Garhwal; Critical and Chronological History of Asian Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; Modern Garhwali Folk Verses Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;; Poems; Critical and Chronological History of Asian  Modern Poetries; Contemporary Poetries, Poems folk Poetries from Rudraprayag Garhwal Asia; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; ; Critical and Chronological History of Asian Modern Garhwali Folk Verses; Modern Poetries; Contemporary Poetries Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Contemporary folk Poetries from Tehri Garhwal; Asia ; Poems;  Inspirational and Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; Asian Modern Garhwali Folk Verses; Modern Poetries; Contemporary Poetries; Contemporary Folk Poetries from Uttarkashi Garhwal;  Modern Garhwali Folk Songs; Modern Garhwali Folk Verses; Poems; Asian Modern Poetries; Critical and Chronological History of Asian Poems; Asian Contemporary Poetries; Contemporary folk Poetries Poems from Dehradun Garhwal Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Famous Asian Poets Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;;Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; Famous South Asian Poet Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;; Famous SAARC Countries Poet Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects; ; Critical and Chronological History of Famous Asian Poets of Modern Time; Strong Supporter of Regional Dialects;

Pargana, Pattis of Garhwal in British Period

British Administration in Garhwal   -4         
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History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -20
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -858
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
     In Garhwali Kingdom period, the Kings did not establish Pattis or Thok as per geographical means  Garhwal King used to offer Jagir to Jagirdar by villages and not by geographical situation. For example, King offered ‘Naithana ‘village (Tehri Garhwal)  that was crossing Alaknanda River from Shrinagar was offered as Jagir to Sayana of Badhan Pargana.  Therefore, Naithana was village under Badhan Pargana. Gurkha administrators stopped Naithana Jagir to Sayana of Badhan. However, Naithana was under Badhan Patti. There were so many discrepancies in Pattis and villages. Batten corrected in establishing Pattis and Parganas as per geographical means. Batten divided Garhwal into 11 Parganas and 86 Pattis as –
S.N.----Pargana----------------------Pattis
1- Barahsyun------------------------1-Banelsyun 2-Bangarhsyun 3-Gagwarsyun4- Idwalsyun 5-Khatsyun 6- Kafolsyun 7-Manyarsyun 8-Nadalsyun 9- Paidulsyun 10-Patwalsyun 11- Rawatsyun 13-Sitaunsyun 14-Aswalsyun
2- Badhan----------------------------15- Khansar 16- Kapiri 17- Kadakot 18-Mandak 19- pindarwar 20- Pindarpar
3-Chandpur--------------------------- 21-Chandpur Sili 22- Chandpur Taili 23- Choprakot 24- Chauthan 25- Dhaijyuli 26- Lobha 27-Ranigarh 28-Sirgur
4-Chaundkot--------------------------------29- Gurarsyun 30- Jaintolsyun 31-Kimgadigad 32-Maundadsyun 33-Mawalsyun 34-Pinglapakha 35-Ringwadsyun
5- Devalgarh----------------------------- 36- Bidolsyun 37-Bachhansyun 38-Chalansyun 39-Dhanpur 40-Ghurdaudsyun 41- Kandarsyun 42- Katolsyun
6-Dashauli--------------------------------------43- Baind 44- Dashauli Malli 45- Dashauli Talli
7- Nagpur- --------------------------------46- Bamsu 47-Kalifat Malli 48- Kalifat Talli 49- Maikhanda 50-Nagpur Malla, 51- Nagpur Bichhla 52- Nagpur Talla 53- Urgam 54- Parkandi
8- Painkhanda- ------------------------------ 55- Painkhanda Malla 56- Painkhanda Talla
9-Gangasalan------------------------------------ 57- Dhangu Malla 58- Dhangu talla 59- Karandu valla 60- Karandu Palla 61-Langur 62- Udaipur Malla 63- Udaipur Bichhla 64-Udaipur Talla 65- Ajmer
10- Malla Salan --------------------------------------- 66- Bangarsyun 67- Dhoundiyalsyun 68-Guhdu 69- Idiyakot 70-Khatli 71- Kolagad 72- Meldhar 73- sabali 74- Saindhar 75- Talain
11- Talla Salan ---------------------------------------- 76- Bhabahr 77- Bijlaut Valla 78- Bungi 79- Badalpur Malla 80- Badalput Talla 82- Kaudiya Valla 83- Kaudiya Palla 84- Paino 85-Sila Malla 86- Sila Talla
  
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -859
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 149

 
      Xx
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
 
 
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क्या मुझे भी घोषित कर देना चाहिए ?

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                       क्या मुझे भी  घोषित कर  देना चाहिए ?
                                        चबोड़ , चखन्यौ , चचराट :::   भीष्म कुकरेती 
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घरवळि - म्यार जोग इ इन छा।  वी ले हूंद त आज  अवश्य डिक्लेयर कर दींदु। 
मि -हैं कु ?
घरवळि -तुम कुण क्वी बि ह्वावु।  कौन सा तुमन कुछ करण।  वू हूंद त जरूर  मेरी नाक बची जांदी।  मुहल्ला मा मुख दिखाणम बि शरम आणि च , हिटण कठण हुयुं च।    ..  
मि -अरे पर कु हूंद , कख हूंद अर क्या कौर दींदु 
मुन्ना - डैडी ! वो मम्मी के मायके मुहल्ले में नहीं हैं मैड अंकल !
मि -हाँ तो वैक क्या ?
मुन्ना - डैडी ! मम्मी उन्ही अंकल की बात कर  रही हैं।  अंकल जब बि सरकार की कोई घोषणा हो या सामयिक आंदोलन हो वो मैड अंकल वैसा कर देते हैं। 
मि -तो मम्मी दगड़ वैक क्या लीण दीण ?
मुन्ना -मम्मी की शादी की बात उन मैड अंकल से चल रही थी।  
मि - त ह्वाई किलै नी च ?
मुन्ना - अरे उस समय हिंदी आंदोलन चल रहा था और सब अंग्रेजी साइन बोर्डों को काला  कर रहे थे।  अंकल ने नाना जी का मुंह  काला कर दिया।  मुहल्ले में केवल नाना जी को अंग्रेजी बोलनी आती थी। बस शादी नही हुयी। 
घरवळि -अरे पर आज मि मुहल्ला मा ब्लाउज - साड़ी तौळ छाती चौड़ी कौरिक चल त सकुद छौ कि ना ? वैन अवश्य  डिक्लेयर कर दीण छौ।  पागल च पर सामयिक विषयों की वैल्यू त समजद च। 
मि -अरे पर क्या ह्वे ?
घरवळि -मिसेज कबाड़ी बि आज छप्पन्न इंची छाती चौड़ी करिक  दौड़नी  रैंदी , मिसेज चपड़ासी तो सब तै बताणी रौंदी। एक मी छौं जु मुख दिखाण लैक बि  नि रयुं छौं।  ऊंक कजे त अपण कज्याणि ख़याल रखदन।  रिटायर्ड चपड़ासी बि अपण वाइफक ध्यान रखणा छन। एक म्यारी भाग फुट्यां छन।  
मि -ह्यां क्या ह्वाइ ?
घरवळि -हूण क्या च।  सरा मुहल्ला मा कंट्रोल वळ , रद्दी -कबाड़ वळ, रिटायर्ड सेल टैक्स अधिकारी तो छैं इ छ्याई इख तलक कि द्वी भूतपूर्ब सरकार चपड़ास्यूंन बि भारी भरकम ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर कर दे।    
मि -तो क्या ह्वाइ ?
घरवळि -क्या ह्वाई ? क्या नि ह्वाइ।   हरेक जनानी मि तै पुछणि छन कि तुम कब ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर करणा छंवां?  कब ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर करणा छंवां?  अजकाल जैन बि ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर कार वैकि मुहल्ला मा जै जै कार  हूणि च।  
मि -पर मि हर साल इनकम टैक्स भरणु रौंद छौ तो मीम ब्लैक मनी हूणो सवाल इ पैदा नि हूंद।  मीम पिछ्ला तीस सालक  फॉर्म सिक्सटीन  पड्यां छन। 
घरवळि -पर कैन बोली छौ कि इनकम टैक्स भरो।  एबरयांकुण काम तो आंद।  पर मि नि जाणदु अब्याकि अबि ब्लैक मणि डिक्लेयर कारो।   
मि -ह्याँ पण , ब्लैक मनी कुण कमाण पोड़द अर बगैर इनकम टैक्स भर्यां पैसा घुमाण पड़द।  
घरवळि -मि नि जणदु इ सब।  इज्जत बचाणो कुण तुम तै कुछ करण पोड़ल।  
मि -ह्यां पण   .. 
घरवळि -मि कुछ नि जाणदु।  यदि तुमन ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर नि कार तो मीन फांस खै दीण।  मुहल्ला मा हर क्षण मेरी हंसी हूणि च कि तुमन अबि तक ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर नि कार।  तुम सबसे अधिक हूंच छंवां तुम सबसे  जयां बित्यां छंवां।   
मि -ह्यां पण जु टैम पर प्रत्येक कमाई कु टैक्स भरदो वैमा ब्लैक मनी नि रै सक्दो। 
घरवळि -मेसे अब बेज्जती नि सये जांदी।  जिल्लत की जिंदगी से बढ़िया तो मरण ही ठीक च।  तो म्यार फांस खाणो इंतजाम कारो।  
मि -अच्छा ! अच्छा ! इंतजाम करदो।  इन कौर हमर ब्यौ बाद का पिग्गी बैंक बक्सुड़ी ला।  
घरवळि -उख पर क्या च ?
मि -याद च पिग्गी बैंक मा वी पैसा पड्यां छन जु सर्कुलेशन से भैर ह्वे गे छा। अर दुकानदार तो छोडो बैंक वळुन बि यूँ पैसों तै लीण से इनकार कर दे छौ।   
घरवळि -हाँ अर वु सब पैसा बगतौ संग काळ बि हुयां छन। 
मि -एक दै गौण छा  ना हमन ? 
घरवळि -हाँ , दुंळ वाळ पैसा से लेकि अट्ठनी तक कुल सताईस रूप्या उन्नीस पैसा छन।  
मि -ठीक च।  मि ईं चेंज लेक इनकम टैक्स ऑफिस जांदू अर उख जैक रियल ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर कौरिक आंद। 
घरवळि -हाँ हाँ चौड़ जावो अर डिक्लेयर कौरिक आओ /  तुम इनकम टैक्स ऑफिस जावो अर मि मुहल्ला मा सब तै बथैक आंदु कि तुम बि ब्लैक मनी डिक्लेयर करणो इनकम टैक्स ऑफिस जयां छंवां। 
मि  ( अपणा इ मन मा )-क्या इनकम टैक्स वाळ ये ब्लैक मनी तैं स्वीकार कारल ? या ? पर फिर बि जाण मा क्या हर्ज च ? 

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23/7/2016 ,Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti , Mumbai India 
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Garhwali Vyangya, Jokes  ; Garhwali Hasya , Jokes ;  Garhwali skits , Jokes  ; Garhwali short Skits, Jokes , Garhwali Comedy Skits , Jokes , Humorous Skits in Garhwali , Jokes, Wit Garhwali Skits , Jokes 
गढ़वाली हास्य , व्यंग्य ; गढ़वाली हास्य , व्यंग्य ; गढ़वाली  हास्य , व्यंग्य,  गढ़वाली जोक्स , उत्तराखंडी जोक्स , गढ़वाली हास्य मुहावरे 

अनुगीत ( प्रशंसनीय गढ़वाली कविता )

Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Poems , Philosophy and Realism 
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  अनुगीत ( प्रशंसनीय गढ़वाली कविता )

रचना --    ( जन्म  1968 ,  डबरालस्यूं , पौड़ी गढ़वाल  ) 
Poetry  by - Yashodhar Dabral-
( गढ़वाली कविता  क्रमगत इतिहास  भाग - 144)
-इंटरनेट प्रस्तुति और व्याख्या : भीष्म कुकरेती 
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 रौंस रै कि तीस रै नि जाणि साकु  जिंदगी। 
फटीं पुरणी किताब सी नि बाँचि साकु जिंदगी।। 

अगास उड़ण्या सुपिन रै पत्त भुयां पोड़ी गौं। 
फगत यनि चिताणु रौं कि ज्युँदि लाश जिंदगी।। 

कबि भरम करम को रै , भतांग खैनी भाग की। 
रौं पिछ्वड़ि लफांग द्वी , नि छौंपि साकु  जिंदगी।। 

कदम-कदम उजड़दि रै , बसगळया पगार सी। 
मीन दूदाs  बाळ सी अड्येकि  राखि  जिंदगी।। 

द्वी घड्यूंक जीण मां , उमर भर की मौत छ। 
फिर बी रोज करदू रौं , तेरी तलाश  जिंदगी।। 

( साभार --शैलवाणी , अंग्वाळ )
Poetry Copyright@ Poet
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti  interpretation if any

Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Modern Poetries 
, Philosophy and Realism Poems Contemporary Poetries, Philosophy and Realism    , Contemporary folk Poetries from Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs,Poems  Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Modern Poetries, Contemporary Poetries, Contemporary folk Poetries , Philosophy and Realism ,   Poems , Philosophy and Realism  from Pauri Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Poems , Modern Poetries, Contemporary Poetries, Philosophy and Realism    , Contemporary folk Poetries from Chamoli Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Poems, Philosophy and Realism  , Modern Poetries, Contemporary Poetries, Poems folk Poetries from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Philosophy and Realism    , Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Modern Poetries , Philosophy and Realism  , Contemporary Poetries, Contemporary folk Poetries from Tehri Garhwal; Poems, Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Modern Poetries , Philosophy and Realism  , Contemporary Poetries, Contemporary Folk Poetries from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Modern Garhwali Folk Songs, Modern Garhwali Folk Verses, Poems, Modern Poetries,Poems, Contemporary Poetries, Contemporary folk Poetries Poems from Dehradun Garhwal;, Philosophy and Realism 
पौड़ी गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ; चमोली  गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ; रुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ;टिहरी गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ; देहरादून गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड  से गढ़वाली लोकगीत , कविता ;  

Tehsils in Garhwal in British Period

British Administration in Garhwal   -3         
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -19
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -857
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 
           In British period, Garhwal was called ‘Pahad’, the plains of Bhabhar, Dehradun, Chandighat Pargana were called ‘ Madhes or ‘Mal’.
            
       Frazer reported 16 Pargana in a letter of 21st July 1815 (Dabral).  While, Atkinson mentined 17 Pargana . Atkinson mentioned Seela as  additional Pargana. Frazer did not mention Seela.  Atkinson rectified the names of two Parganas Kuthli and Pinkando as Khatli and parkandi. Frazer mentioned a Patti ‘Silha’ as patti of Salan. Kedarkhand also mentions the name ‘Silha (172/11). The old name for ‘Seela’ was ‘Silha’.
      In 1815, British government established Shrinagar and Chandpur Tehsils and Peshkari in Kotdwara. There was police station in Kotdwara too. In 1817, Kotdwara was changed from Peshkari to Dhangu (Kainyur) Tehsil.(Atkinson).
  There were following Pargana and Pattis of Chandpur Tehsil in 1821-
Chandpur Pargana- 5 Pattis , Chandpur, Lobha, Dhanpur, Tambakhand . Chopdakot –
Badhan Pargana- 3 Pattis, Badhan, Kadakot and Kapiri
Malsalan- 7 Pattis, Sabli,Khatli, Bangarsyun, Gujudu, Dhoundiyalsyun, Saindhar, Meldhar.
Dhangu Tehsil- 11 Pattis, Udaipur, Ajmer, Dhangu, Seela, Karaundu (today’s Dabralsyun), Kauria, Langur, Bungi, Bijlaut, Badalpur.
 In 1822, British administration abolished Dhangu as Tehsil.
The five Pattis were brought under new Pargana ’Gangaslan’, Gangasalan was kept under Shrinagar Tehsil.
    The balance six Pattis of Dhangu were kept under ne Pargana- Tallasalan under Chandpur Tehsil.
   Initially, Chandkot Pargana had Idiyakot, Talain, and Kolagad Pattis. Later on a few villages of Devalgarh were added in Chandkot Pargana. (Atkinson)
    In 1834, government abolished Shrinagar Tehsil and brought one one Tehsil Chandpur and HQ was at Kenyur. Again Shringar was made Tehsil. A Panai Patti of Chandpur Pargana was brought under Dhanpur  (Dabral, page 150)
 
 
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -858
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 149
2-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -6, Gorkhyali
3-Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, page 455
4-Atkinson, Himalayan districts, vol-2, page 648
 
      Xx
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
 
 Dhangu, Gangasalan Ka Kukreti