उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका की गतिविधियाँ ई-मेल पर

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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 8 History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -73 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -592 By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student) Hasti Dal Chautariya was first Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal. He was Governor of Garhwal from 1805-1808AD. Thapa group was heading the total rule as proxy of Nepal King in Kathmandu. Thapa goup had its own warriors campaigning in West of Nepal. Thapa group was conscious about Chautariya revolting in Nepal and acts for de-rooting Thapa Group. When Gurkha/Gorkha captured Garhwal people migrated in mass from Garhwal including Dehradun. It was necessary of Gurkha/Gorkha administers in Nepal that they sent a calm person in Garhwal for bringing situation under control. Gurkha/Gorkha administrators sent Ritudhwaj Thapa, Vijay Singh Sahi and Haridatt Oza for improving situation of land revenues and bad perception among Kumaoni Subjects for Gurkha/Gorkha in Kumaon. At the same time, Gurkha/Gorkha sent Hasti Dal Chautariya as Governor for Garhwal. Rudravir Shah the Brother Hasti Dal Chautariya was sent for Kangra Campaign in 1805. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was a young man of 43-44 ages. Asiatic Research offered information about Gurkha/Gorkha Governor Hasti Dal Chautariya. He was of medium height and fatter than common people. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor Hast Dal Chautariya was a pleasant person and good natured person too. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was a liberal person and used to forgive for petty mistakes. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya tried to subdue the anger of subjects of Garhwal and Dehradun and tried to satisfy the people. Williams in Memoir of Dehradun informed that Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was interested in agriculture and understood agriculture too. Hasti Dal Chautariya improving Administration in Dehradun By people deserting villages and Gurkha/Gorkha harassing, punishing Mahant Harsevak Ram, the villages of Dehradun were desert like. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya retained the position of Guru Ram Rai Darbar Mahant Har Sewak Ram. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya returned back all the power and benefits of Mahant Har Sevak Ram. Mahant Har Sevak Ram had great influence on the people of Dehradun. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya encouraged people to return to their villages and engage in agriculture activities. Agricultural activities increased but slowly. In Pradyuman Period, the annual income from Doon valley was one lakh rupees. It was just nine thousand rupees in initial Gorkha/Gurkha rule. However, within three years it increased sixteen thousand rupees and then eighteen rupees. Curtailing Looters Looting in Dehradun in Hasti Dal Chautariya Period For years, the Jat, Rohilas, Ranghad, gujjar, looters from Haridwar plains, Sahranpur and Sikh Looters used to attack on Dehradun villagers and used to loot regularly. British took steps to stop looting in Saharanpur of Sikh looters. However, Sikh Looters regularly looted Dehradun in initial Gurkha/Gorkha time too. Gorkha local administrator challenged to Sikh Looters that if they would come to Dehradun, Gurkha would burn the villagers of Sikh Looters. Sikh Looters did not pay attention of Gurkha cautions. A Group of Sikh Looters came to loot Dehradun and called villagers to pay Tribute (protection money). Local Gurkha/Gorkha administrator sent 200 Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers to fight with Sikh Looters. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers followed Sikh Looters till their villages, Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers burnt the houses of Sikh Looters and if any Sikh child or male was escaping, he was thrown into burning houses. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers protected only beautiful women. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers took the beautiful Sikh women with them. Williams reported the above incidents and wrote further that though, the above acts was inhuman and cruelest ones but there afterwards the Sikh Looters lessened entering into Dehradun region . Encouraging Agriculture in Dehradun by Mahant Har Sevak Ram and Gurkha Representative Kaji Amrit Guru Har Sevak Ram and Gurkha/Gorkha regent Kaji Amrit worked hard for improving agriculture in Dehradun. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya took a few concrete steps to improve agriculture. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya offered Takabi Rin (loan) to farmers for coming forward in agriculture. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya offered incentives to Sayana (village chief or leader) those encouraged villagers for agriculture. Encouraged by incentives, Sayana (Village leader or chiefs) invited back the farmers. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya also set a nominal tax on agriculture (twelve part or sixteenth part of crop) production. The region as Klyanpur became prosperous due to encouraging acts of Gurkha administration. Bam Shah as Gurkha /Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Ritudhwaj Thapa, Vijay Singh Sahi and Hardatt Singh were administrators of Kumaon at that time. Rituraj Thapa was called back to Nepal and he was hung in Doti for a crime (unknown). Nepal court appointed Bamshah as Governor of Kumaon in place of Ritudhwaj Thapa. Bamshah was elder brother of Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya. Bamshah was Kumaon Governor till 1815. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah was also a liberal person. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah tried his best to improve administration Kumaon specially to get support among people for Gurkha. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took support of Brahmins and Jagirdar or Thokdar. Therefore, supporters of Lal Singh Chand could not spread chaos or rebelinism in Kumaon. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took steps for protection of individual property of Kumaon People. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah retained the Jagirs of previous Jagirdar. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took action for judiciary. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah stopped slavery or selling people who could not pay taxes or punishment money. Administration in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period There were – 1-Three Tehsils in Garhwal 2-84 Pattis were in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period. Ashtdal Thapa, Kaji Ranbahadur and Parshuram Thapa were the chief assisting officers (AS IAS today) in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period. There is ‘Fard’ (record) of March 1807, states that Sardar Bhaktivir Thapa was Bhardar or representative of Dhangu region (Gangasalan, Pauri Garhwal). Dhangu region had income of 25 Gurkha soldiers. Auction of Slavs in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period Kumaon Governor Bam Shah stopped slave selling in Kumaon. However, Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal did not stop slave selling system in Garhwal. When a person or family was unable to pay taxes decided by local Gurkha/Gorkha representative his land was auctioned along with family members. If any person/family members were not purchased as slaves in auction, such people were sent to Bhimgoda near Har Ki Paidi, Haridwar for selling. There slaves were auctioned. The price for a slave used to be from rupees 10 to 150. In, Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal period, the average price for Punjabi Camel was rupees 75; Horses from 250-350. Female Slaves and Keti of Individual Gurkha/Gorkha Soldiers Apart from selling people in Haridwar, Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers used to have individual female slaves as ‘Rakhail’ (Keep) with them and child slaves. Female slave was called ‘Dasi’ and child slave was called ‘Keti’. Wherever soldiers used to travel, soldier used to take his ‘Rakhail’ and Keti with him. Soldiers took Dasi and Keti with them to Himachal campaign too. ‘Rakhail’ and Keti’ used to take load of soldiers on their head in travelling. It means that ‘Rakhail’ and ‘Keti’ were also transporting medium for Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers. Arrival of Captain Raper East India Company wanted to have information about Garhwal. After taking permission from Nepal court, East India Company sent Captain F.V Raper , Lieutenant W.S Webb and Captain Hearsay ( The Hearsay: Five Generations of an Anglo Indian Family) to Garhwal for survey. They reached Haridwar on 1st April 1808. Once, a bear attacked on Gurkha Governor Hasti Dal Chautariya and Hearsay saved the life of Hasti Dal Chautariya. Therefore, Hasti dal Chautariya was kind for Raper group. When Bhairon Thapa was appointed as Governor of Garhwal, Hasti Dal Chautariya informed that he could not help much. Raper travelled up to near to Bhatwadi, near Gangotri and then he reached to Mana. In return, Raper went to Rampur via Kwarighat, Ramani, Baijnath, Almora. Honor to Mola Ram in Hasti Dal Chautariya Period Mola ram was honored in Nepal for creating long poems in praise of Ranbahadur. Bhairon Thapa replacing Hasti Dal Chautariya as Garhwal Governor In 1806, Nepal court sent Hasti Dal Chautariya, his brother Rudravir Chautariya and Dalbhajan Pande for capturing Kangra Fort. However, due to wise strategy of Kangra King Saansar Chand , he fled with family and Gurkha could not capture Kangra Fort. Amar Singh Thapa informed Nepal Court that Hasti Dal and company took bribe from Kangra King. Hasti Dal Chautariya and others had pay penalty. Hasti Dal Chautariya was replaces from Garhwal Governor post and Nepal Court appointed Bhairon Thapa as Garhwal Governor. ** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter *** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/3//2015 History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -593 (The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers) XX Reference Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts … Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics: Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173 B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha Chaudhari , Anglo –Nepalese Relations Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1 Maula Ram/Mola Ram , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya J B Fraser , Asiatic Research Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered XXX Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास Xx History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal, History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon History: Rule of Hastidal Chautariya Garhwal, History: general Administration of Hastidal Chautariya Garhwal

 Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty ) in Context History of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur


                                   हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर   इतिहास  संदर्भ में परीक्षित व जन्मजेय (कुरु वंश )           


                    History of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur  Part  -- 
86

                                  

                               हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर   इतिहास  -आदिकाल से सन 1947 तक-भाग -       86               


                                                इतिहास विद्यार्थी ::: भीष्म कुकरेती  
                                       सम्राट परीक्षित 

                      यादव वंश नाश होने व श्री कृष्ण मृत्यु से  युधिष्ठिर ग्लानि से भर उठा।  वह व पांडव भी देह त्याग का विचार करने लगे।  अभिमन्यु -उत्तर पुत्र परीक्षित को कुरु राज्य सौंपकर पांडव , द्रौपदी सहित कुरुक्षेत्र से देव -वन (देवबंद , सहारनपुर ) , कनखल , (मायापुर हरिद्वार ) होते हुए बद्रीधाम  पंहुचे।
              महाभारत विश्लेषण से लगता है कि   परीक्षित को पैतृक राज्य -कुरुक्षेत्र, कुरुदेश , कुरुजांगल      मिले थे। इस राज्य में पुर्बी पंजाब व गंगा -यमुना के उत्तरी दोआब आते थे।   अतः हरिद्वार, बिजनौर व सहारनपुर परीक्षित राज्य के अंतर्गत थे।  पृष्ट की सीमायें उत्तर में कुलिंद राज्य , दक्षिण में शूरशेन (मथुरा ) व बैराट;  पश्चिम में रोहतक और पूरब में रुहेलखण्ड इलाके थे , 
              परीक्षित को न्यायप्रिय , धार्मिक , दानी , अर्थनीति ग्यानी माना गया है।  पृष्ट कुशल शिकारी भी था। 
परीक्षित की हत्या - नागवंशियों के प्रतिनिथि तक्षक नाग ने पुराना बदला लेने हेतु परीक्षित की विष से हत्या की। 
परीक्षित  ने २५ साल तक राज्य किया। 
                              जनमजेय 
अपने पिता की मृत्यु समय जनमजेय बालक था  उसे बालक होते भी राजगद्दी पर बिठाया गया। जन्मजेय ने तक्षक से बदला लेने हेतु तक्षशिला जीता।  व यज्ञ  समस्त नाग भष्म हो जांय।  किन्तु ब्राह्मण पिता और नागमाता  आस्तीक  के कारण   तक्षक व ने नागों की रक्षा हुयी। 
      जन्मजेय ने  पश्चिम की ओर गंगा से सिंधु तक राज्य विस्तार किया।  जन्मजेय के दिग्विजय की पुष्टि  शतपथ ब्राह्मण व ऐतरीय ब्राह्मण ने भी किन हैं। शायद जन्मजेय का उत्तराखंड पर भी अधिकार था। 
जन्मजेय व ऋषियों के मध्य झगड़ा होने से जन्मजेय से ब्राह्मण हत्या भ्रूण हत्या हुयी और कहते हैं इसी कारण कुरु वंश का नाश हुआ। ब्राह्मण रुष्ट होकर पूर्व की ओर काशी , कौसल , विदेह आदि जनपदों में बस गए। 
       जन्मजेय के पश्चात कुरुवंशिनियों ने ६० -७० साल तक राज्य किया विशेषतः पंजाब  क्षेत्र में। 

              निचक्षु के काल में गंगा जी में भयंकर बाढ़ आई और हस्तिनापुर बह गया तो राजधानी कौशंबी स्थापित  करनी पड़ी।  ऐसा माना जाता है कि गंगा जी में बाढ़ 800 BC  या 750 विक्रम संबत के करीब आई थी।  
        


 ** संदर्भ - ---
वैदिक इंडेक्स
डा शिव प्रसाद डबराल , उत्तराखंड  इतिहास - भाग -२
राहुल -ऋग्वेदिक आर्य
मजूमदार , पुसलकर , वैदिक एज 
घोषाल , स्टडीज इन इंडियन हिस्ट्री ऐंड कल्चर 
आर के पुर्थि , द एपिक सिवलीजिसन 
Copyright@
 Bhishma Kukreti  Mumbai, India 25 /3/2015 
   History of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur  to be continued Part  --87

 हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर का आदिकाल से सन 1947 तक इतिहास  to be continued -भाग -

      Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Vansh) & History of Kankhal, Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Vansh) &    History of Har ki Paidi Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Jwalapur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &    History of Telpura Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &   History of Sakrauda Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &   History of Bhagwanpur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;   Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Roorkee, Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &    History of Jhabarera Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;   Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &History of Manglaur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &   History of Laksar; Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Sultanpur,  Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;   History of Pathri Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;    History of Landhaur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;   Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Bahdarabad, Uttarakhand ; Haridwar;    History of Narsan Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Bijnor;    Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Nazibabad Bijnor ;   Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &   History of Saharanpur;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) &   History of Nakur , Saharanpur;    Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Deoband, Saharanpur;  Parikshit and Janamjey (Kuru Dynasty , Vansh) & History of Badhsharbaugh , Saharanpur; कनखल , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; तेलपुरा , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; सकरौदा ,  हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; भगवानपुर , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;रुड़की ,हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; झाब्रेरा हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; मंगलौर हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;लक्सर हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;सुल्तानपुर ,हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;पाथरी , हरिद्वार का

History: Administration of Gurkha/Gorkha Governor Hastidal Chautariya in Garhwal

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 8
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -73
  
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -592

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            Hasti Dal Chautariya was first Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal. He was Governor of Garhwal from 1805-1808AD.
          Thapa group was heading the total rule as proxy of Nepal King in Kathmandu. Thapa goup had its own warriors campaigning in West of Nepal. Thapa group was conscious about Chautariya revolting in Nepal and acts for de-rooting Thapa Group. When Gurkha/Gorkha captured Garhwal people migrated in mass from Garhwal including Dehradun. It was necessary of Gurkha/Gorkha administers in Nepal that they sent a calm person in Garhwal for bringing situation under control.
   Gurkha/Gorkha administrators sent Ritudhwaj Thapa, Vijay Singh Sahi and Haridatt Oza for improving situation of land revenues and bad perception among Kumaoni Subjects for Gurkha/Gorkha in Kumaon. At the same time, Gurkha/Gorkha sent Hasti Dal Chautariya as Governor for Garhwal. Rudravir Shah the Brother Hasti Dal Chautariya was sent for Kangra Campaign in 1805.
        Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was a young man of 43-44 ages. Asiatic Research offered information about Gurkha/Gorkha Governor Hasti Dal Chautariya.
              He was of medium height and fatter than common people. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor Hast Dal Chautariya was a pleasant person and good natured person too. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was a liberal person and used to forgive for petty mistakes. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya tried to subdue the anger of subjects of Garhwal and Dehradun and tried to satisfy the people. Williams in Memoir of Dehradun informed that Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya was interested in agriculture and understood agriculture too.

           Hasti Dal Chautariya improving Administration  in Dehradun
                 By people deserting villages and Gurkha/Gorkha harassing, punishing Mahant Harsevak Ram, the villages of Dehradun were desert like. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya retained the position of Guru Ram Rai Darbar Mahant Har Sewak Ram. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya returned back all the power and benefits of Mahant Har Sevak Ram. Mahant Har Sevak Ram had great influence on the people of Dehradun. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya encouraged people to return to their villages and engage in agriculture activities. Agricultural activities increased but slowly. In Pradyuman Period, the annual income from Doon valley was one lakh rupees. It was just nine thousand rupees in initial Gorkha/Gurkha rule. However, within three years it increased sixteen thousand rupees and then eighteen rupees.
        Curtailing Looters Looting in Dehradun in Hasti Dal Chautariya Period
 For years, the Jat, Rohilas, Ranghad, gujjar, looters from Haridwar plains, Sahranpur and Sikh Looters used to attack on Dehradun villagers and used to loot regularly.
         British took steps to stop looting in Saharanpur of Sikh looters. However, Sikh Looters regularly looted Dehradun in initial Gurkha/Gorkha time too. Gorkha local administrator challenged to Sikh Looters that if they would come to Dehradun, Gurkha would burn the villagers of Sikh Looters. Sikh Looters did not pay attention of Gurkha cautions. A Group of Sikh Looters came to loot Dehradun and called villagers to pay Tribute (protection money). Local Gurkha/Gorkha administrator sent 200 Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers to fight with Sikh Looters. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers followed Sikh Looters till their villages, Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers burnt the houses of Sikh Looters and if any Sikh child or male was escaping, he was thrown into burning houses. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers protected only beautiful women. Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers took the beautiful Sikh women with them.
   Williams reported the above incidents and wrote further that though, the above acts was inhuman and cruelest ones but there afterwards the Sikh Looters lessened entering into Dehradun region .


  Encouraging Agriculture in Dehradun by Mahant Har Sevak Ram and Gurkha Representative Kaji Amrit

   Guru Har Sevak Ram and Gurkha/Gorkha regent Kaji Amrit worked hard for improving agriculture in Dehradun. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya took a few concrete steps to improve agriculture. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya offered Takabi Rin (loan) to farmers for coming forward in agriculture. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya offered incentives to Sayana (village chief or leader) those encouraged villagers for agriculture. Encouraged by incentives, Sayana (Village leader or chiefs) invited back the farmers. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya also set a nominal tax on agriculture (twelve part or sixteenth part of crop) production. The region as Klyanpur became prosperous due to encouraging acts of Gurkha administration.

              Bam Shah as Gurkha /Gorkha Governor of Kumaon

  Ritudhwaj Thapa, Vijay Singh Sahi and Hardatt Singh were administrators of Kumaon at that time. Rituraj Thapa was called back to Nepal and he was hung in Doti for a crime (unknown).  Nepal court appointed Bamshah as Governor of Kumaon in place of Ritudhwaj Thapa. Bamshah was elder brother of Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Hasti Dal Chautariya. Bamshah was Kumaon Governor till 1815. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah was also a liberal person. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah tried his best to improve administration Kumaon specially to get support among people for Gurkha.
       Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took support of Brahmins and Jagirdar or Thokdar. Therefore, supporters of Lal Singh Chand could not spread chaos or rebelinism in Kumaon. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took steps for protection of individual property of Kumaon People. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah retained the Jagirs of previous Jagirdar.
          Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah took action for judiciary. Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Kumaon Bam Shah stopped slavery or selling people who could not pay taxes or punishment money.

   Administration in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period
   There were –
1-Three Tehsils in Garhwal
2-84 Pattis were in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period.
  Ashtdal Thapa, Kaji Ranbahadur and Parshuram Thapa were the chief assisting officers (AS IAS today) in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period.
 There is ‘Fard’ (record) of March 1807, states that Sardar Bhaktivir Thapa was Bhardar or representative of Dhangu region (Gangasalan, Pauri Garhwal). Dhangu region had income of 25 Gurkha soldiers.    

       Auction of Slavs in Garhwal in Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal Period
  Kumaon Governor Bam Shah stopped slave selling in Kumaon. However, Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal did not stop slave selling system in Garhwal.
  When a person or family was unable to pay taxes decided by local Gurkha/Gorkha representative his land was auctioned along with family members. If any person/family members were not purchased as slaves in auction, such people were sent to Bhimgoda near Har Ki Paidi, Haridwar for selling. There slaves were auctioned.
 The price for a slave used to be from rupees 10 to 150. In, Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gurkha/Gorkha Governor of Garhwal period, the average price for Punjabi Camel was rupees 75; Horses from 250-350.

  Female Slaves and Keti of Individual Gurkha/Gorkha Soldiers
   Apart from selling people in Haridwar, Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers used to have individual female slaves as ‘Rakhail’ (Keep) with them and child slaves. Female slave was called ‘Dasi’ and child slave was called ‘Keti’. Wherever soldiers used to travel, soldier used to take his ‘Rakhail’ and Keti with him. Soldiers took Dasi and Keti with them to Himachal campaign too. ‘Rakhail’ and Keti’ used to take load of soldiers on their head in travelling. It means that ‘Rakhail’ and ‘Keti’ were also transporting medium for Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers.
             Arrival of Captain Raper
   
             East India Company wanted to have information about Garhwal. After taking permission from Nepal court, East India Company sent Captain F.V Raper , Lieutenant W.S Webb and Captain Hearsay ( The Hearsay: Five Generations   of an Anglo Indian Family) to Garhwal for survey. They reached Haridwar on 1st April 1808. Once, a bear attacked on Gurkha Governor Hasti Dal Chautariya and Hearsay saved the life of Hasti Dal Chautariya. Therefore, Hasti dal Chautariya was kind for Raper group. When Bhairon Thapa was appointed as Governor of Garhwal, Hasti Dal Chautariya informed that he could not help much.
         Raper travelled up to near to Bhatwadi, near Gangotri and then he reached to Mana. In return, Raper went to Rampur via Kwarighat, Ramani, Baijnath, Almora.

    Honor to Mola Ram in Hasti Dal Chautariya Period

         Mola ram was honored in Nepal for creating long poems in praise of Ranbahadur.

                 Bhairon Thapa replacing Hasti Dal Chautariya as Garhwal Governor

   In 1806, Nepal court sent Hasti Dal Chautariya, his brother Rudravir Chautariya and Dalbhajan Pande for capturing Kangra Fort. However, due to wise strategy of Kangra King Saansar Chand , he fled with family and Gurkha could not capture Kangra Fort. Amar Singh Thapa informed Nepal Court that Hasti Dal and company took bribe from Kangra King. Hasti Dal Chautariya and others had pay penalty. Hasti Dal Chautariya was replaces from Garhwal Governor post and Nepal Court appointed Bhairon Thapa as Garhwal Governor.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter  

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com25/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -593
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal,     History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon
 History:  Rule of Hastidal Chautariya  Garhwal, History:  general Administration of Hastidal Chautariya  Garhwal

हरिद्वार, बिजनौर , सहारनपुर इतिहास संदर्भ में विभिन्न सामाजिक मान्यताएं

Social Norms in Mhabharata Kulind Kingdom in contexHistory of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur  

                         
                
                       हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर   इतिहास संदर्भ में विभिन्न सामाजिक मान्यताएं
                             History of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur  Part  -- 
85

                                  

                     हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर   इतिहास  -आदिकाल से सन 1947 तक-भाग -      85                


                                               इतिहास विद्यार्थी ::: भीष्म कुकरेती  


                             संतान प्राप्ति 
महाभारत में संतान प्राप्ति को मनुष्य का प्रमुख कर्तव्य मन गया। 
पुत्र प्राप्ति को महत्व दिया गया है। 
निसंतान अथवा निपुत्र होने पर अपनी बहिन या पुत्री के पुत्र को गोद  लेना अथवा ने के पुत्र को गॉड लेने की प्रथा थी। दूसरे महापुरुष (ब्राह्मण ) से अपनी पत्नी से संसर्ग करवाकर भी संतान प्राप्ति की जाती थी। कुंती , आदि ने नियोग द्वारा दूसरे पुरुष से संतान प्राप्ति की  थी और नाम पति का हो जाता था। 
संतानप्राप्ति के लिए तप किया जाता था। 
                 संस्कार पूजन 
विभिन्न जातिकर्म संस्कारों का वर्णन महाभारत में मिलता है।  मनुस्मृति अथवा ऋषि भार्गव स्मृति (शुक्रनीति ) के उल्लेख से साबित होता है की ४४ नही तो १६ जाति कर्म संस्कार महत्वपूर्ण थे।  अर्जुन के जंदिवस मनाने का वणर्न भी यही संदेश देता है।  
                  परिवार 
महाभारत में उत्तराखंड से संबंध में एकचक्र  ब्राह्मण परिवार का जिक्र है जिसमे पती , पत्नी , पुत्र , पुत्री का वर्णन है। 
हिडंबा अपने भाई  रहते भी स्वछंद गामिनी थी। 
                      दाह संस्कार 
पाण्डु , धृतराष्ट्र , गांधारी , विदुर आदि के प्रेत संस्कार का वर्णन है और दाह संस्कार हेतु गंगा का महत्व साबित होता है। 
सती प्रथा का जन्म हो चुका था
                परिवार और व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्रता 

गंगाद्वार की नागपुत्री उलिपि भी स्वछंद थी।  अतः कहा जा सकता है कि परिवार का महत्व था किन्तु व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्रता का महत्व कम नही हुआ था। 
शकुंतला , उलिपि , हिडंबा की कथाएँ दिशा देती हैं कि स्त्रियां अपने मायके में अपना अलग परिवार भी बसाती थीं।
              गृहणी 
 गृहणी का समाज में अधिक उत्तरदायित्व था। यज्ञ हेतु पत्नी आवश्यक होती थी। पत्नी को अर्धांगनी का दर्जा हासिल था। नारीजीवन को सदाव्रत से जोड़ा जाता था व नारी को उत्कृष्ट समाज निर्माता माना जाता था। पुत्र व पुत्री को तकरीबन एक ही अधिकार प्राप्त थे।
                  शिष्टाचार 
शिष्टाचार का अत्यंत महत्व था। गुरुजन , बड़े , बूढ़ों , ज्ञानियों को आदर देना आवश्यक था। ज्ञानियों , बुजर्गों की सेवा अत्यावश्यक था। 
                        स्वाध्याय 
द्विजों /ब्राह्मणो के लिए स्वाध्याय जरूरी कर्म था।
                 शरणागत रक्षा 
शरणागत की रक्षा एक सामाजिक कर्तव्य  माना जाता था। 
              अतिथि सत्कार 
अतिथि को देव तुल्य अधिकार माना जाता था।
              समाज उत्सव 
समाज उत्सव  आम बात थी और लगातार होते रहते थे।  समाज उत्सवमें नाच गान , मनोरंजन , खान -पान , जुआ , खेल आदि साधारण बात थी।
                 शिकार 
शिकार प्रथा आवश्यक थी।
                     दास प्रथा 
दास क्रय -विक्रय सामाजिक नेति के भाग थे।
                 चार वर्ण 
श्रम  आबंटन व्यवस्था आगे बढ़ कर चार वर्णो में प्रवेश कर चुका था।  मुख्य वर्ण - ब्राह्मण , राजपूत , वैस्य व शूद्र थे किन्तु ने वर्णो जैसे म्लेच्छों , यवनों का भी वर्णन महाभारत  में है।
               विद्याध्यन 
विद्याधयंन हेतु आश्रम व व्यक्तिगत अध्यापकों (आज के ट्युसन जैसे ) प्रबंध थे।  विद्यानुसार ब्राह्मणो का उप वर्ग विभाजन होता था। विद्यापीठों में छात्र जीवन अनुशासन व सात्विक होता था। 
             जीवन आश्रम 
जीवन को चार भागों में बांटा गया था 
ब्रह्मचर्य आश्रम 
गृहस्थाश्रम 
वानप्रस्थ आश्रम 
ताप सवृति (वैराग्य )
सन्यास 
योगी जीवन आदि 
                      अन्य सामजिक संस्थाएं व विश्वास आदि 
धर्म निष्ठा 
सत्य निष्ठां 
पाप से भय 
पितरों को श्राद्ध 
पुरहिति पर विश्वास 
ज्योतिष पर विश्वास 
 शकुन व अपशकुन पर विश्वास 
शुद्ध वातवरण पर विश्वास 
दान महिमा पर विश्वास 
भिक्षकों , कमजोर वर्ग, शिक्सार्थियों , विद्यालयों  हेतु समाज में व्यवस्था 
                    मनोविज्ञान 
गीत अध्याय से मालूम होता है कि मनोविज्ञान अपनी युवावस्था से उच्चावस्था की और अग्रसर था।  औटो -सजेसन (Autosuggestion ) अपनी चरमवस्था  में था। 
           
                   प्रसाशन 


कुलिंद जनपद का पांडवों से अच्छे संबंध थे।
          
             सैन्यशक्ति 
सुबाहु की सैन्यशक्ति प्रबल थी। 
हठी , घोड़े आदि का प्रयोग युद्ध में होता था।  रथ बिजनौर , हरिद्वार में चलते थे। 
सैनिकों का बल मल्ल्युद्ध , धनुर्युद्ध आदि में जाता था। 
सेना दलों (बटालियन ) में बांटी जाती थी। 
साम , दाम , दंड , भेद, व उपेक्षा राजकारणी का मुख्य अंग था। 

 ** संदर्भ - ---
वैदिक इंडेक्स
डा शिव प्रसाद डबराल , उत्तराखंड  इतिहास - भाग -२
राहुल -ऋग्वेदिक आर्य
मजूमदार , पुसलकर , वैदिक एज 
घोषाल , स्टडीज इन इंडियन हिस्ट्री ऐंड कल्चर 
आर के पुर्थि , द एपिक सिवलीजिसन 
Copyright@
 Bhishma Kukreti  Mumbai, India 24 /3/2015 
   History of Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur  to be continued Part  --86

 हरिद्वार,  बिजनौर , सहारनपुर का आदिकाल से सन 1947 तक इतिहास  to be continued -भाग -
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       Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context History of Kankhal, Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Har ki Paidi Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context History of Jwalapur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Telpura Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Sakrauda Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Bhagwanpur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Roorkee, Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Jhabarera Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Manglaur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Laksar; Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in contextHistory of Sultanpur,  Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Pathri Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Landhaur Haridwar, Uttarakhand ;   History of Bahdarabad, Uttarakhand ; Haridwar;    Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context History of Narsan Haridwar, Uttarakhand ; Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context  History of Bijnor;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Nazibabad Bijnor;    History of Saharanpur;   History of Nakur , Saharanpur;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context   History of Deoband, Saharanpur;  Social Norms in Mahabharata Kulind Kingdom in context History of Badhsharbaugh , Saharanpur;
कनखल , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; तेलपुरा , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; सकरौदा ,  हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; भगवानपुर , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;रुड़की ,हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; झाब्रेरा हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; मंगलौर हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;लक्सर हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;सुल्तानपुर ,हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;पाथरी , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; बहदराबाद , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ; लंढौर , हरिद्वार का इतिहास ;बिजनौर इतिहास; नगीना ,  बिजनौर इतिहास; नजीबाबाद , नूरपुर , बिजनौर इतिहास;सहारनपुर इतिहास