Khashadhipati of Kartripur, Kartipur, Kartikeynagar of Classical Age or Gupta Period
History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 59
Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-1
(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Om Chanda Handa)
Chandragupta I was the founder of Gupta Dynasty (320-550 BCE) of Patliputra Kingdom. His son Samudragupta (335-380 AD) extended the Gupta rule.
The ‘Prayag Prashsti’ of Samudragupta states that
समतट -डवाक -कामरूप -नेपाल -कर्त्रीपुरादि प्रत्यंतपतिभि: ..... सर्वकरादान करणप्रणाममागमनपारितोषितप्रचंडशासनस्य..... (समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग प्रशस्ति)
’ Harshcharit’ by Banbhatt, references of ‘Devichandragupta natak’, ‘Kavyamimaansha’ by Kanauj court poet Rajshekhar also refer Kartripur, Kartikeypur ruled by a Khashadhipati.
Initially the historians as Raychaudhari suggested Kartripur as Kartarpur of Jalandhar and the rule of such Khashadhipati was supposed from Jalandhar to Kumaon. However the Lakhamandal changed the thinking.
Now, it is believed that Khashadhipati of Kartripur ruled from east of Yamuna to west of Nepal that is some part of Garhwal and Kumaon and some part of Ruhelkhand.
Kartripur in Ancient time
There are evidences of Kartripur (different names as Kartipur, Kartikeynagar) in ancient literature as in Ashtadhyayi of Panini. The Parvnaresh inscriptions (830AD) state-
कार्तिकेयपुरे निम्ब्सार्या बलाध्यक्ष लवचन्द्रकाशाद ... (पौरव नरेश अभिलेख )
The Kanuaj court poet Rajshekhar (920) describes in ‘Kavyameemansa’ that Kartikeypur as the Himalayan cave place where Kinnars sing sweet songs.
Lalitshur and Pattabh inscriptions show Kartikeypur with Antrag, Tankanpur, Badrikashram, Tapovan, Badrikashram, Yoshika, Garudashram, Palsari, Vishnuganga. That shows that present Joshimath was Kartikeypur (Dr Dabral). However, B.D. Pandey criticizes this theory for other reasons. It seems that Kartripur, Kartipur; Kartikeynagar names are for one place (Dabral).
Contemporary kingdoms of Khashadhipati of Kartripur
It seems that the kingdom of Ashvamedha performer kings was divided into two parts
1-Jayadasa of Lakhamandal region (west south Uttarakhand)
2-Kartikeypur or Kartripur that is Eastern Uttarakhand and later on the ruler might have taken shelter under Samudragupta.
Om Chanda Handa writes, “In the remote past when Katyuris were yet to appear on the political scene of Uttarakhand as the sovereign n rulers, Talihat should have remained a centre of the unknown political powers, about which stray and vague indications are available.” (2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand, page 184)
However vague information is available for complete knowledge.
Khashadhipati of Kartripur
Dabral wrote the historical details of Khashadhipati of Uttarakhand on the basis of Harshcharit, Devichandraguptanatak, Kavyameemansha, and Sajjan inscriptions (while Dr Handa mentions the history very briefly) as-
After death of King Samudragupta, Ramgupta/Sharmgupta the son of Samudragupta attacked on Himalayan tribe chief Shakanarsh-Khashadhipati. Ramgupta took his wife Dhruvswamini with him on the campaign. When Ramgupta reached to Kartikeynagar, Khashadhipati blocked a narrow road for Ramgupta returning from Kartikeypur.
According to a saying, Ramgupta put a pact note before Khashadhipati. Khashadhipati asked Dhruvswamini the wife of Ramgupta in turn of freeing the road for Ramgupta. Ramgupta gifted his wife Dhruvswamini to Khashadhipati and returned from Kartikeypur.
Another saying states that when Ramgupta was ready to gift his wife to Khashadhipati, Chandragupta (younger brother of Ramgupta) went to Khashadhipati as Dhruvswamini along with his soldiers in women dresses. Chandragupta killed Khashadhipati. This way Gupta captured the territory of Khashadhipati.
Later on Chandragupta killed his elder brother Ramgupta, married Dhruvswamini and became King of Patliputra.
The king Khashadhipati was a Shaka but his subject was Khasa.
Rahul Santyakritan states that Kartikeypur must be Joshimath.
e Period of Khashadhipati
The time period of Khashadhipati seems to be 350- to 381AD.
Gupta Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar
Gupta ruled over some part of Uttarakhand and Haridwar from Chandragupta time (376 AD onwards).
The fort at Mangalaur , Haridwar built by king Mangal Sen threw some light on Gupta rule on Sahranpur and part of Haridwar. Mangal Sen was a regent of Gupta Empire (Samudragupta).
Missing Historical Links of Khashadhipati of Uttarakhand
There are many historical links of Khashadhipati missing and it is difficult to calculate the numbers of regent of Gupta Empire in Haridwar, Garhwal and Kumaon.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 31/05/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -60
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…2