Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -18
itish Administration in Garhwal -74
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -92
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -929
Traill writes, “When a Hissedar (land owner) is unable for cultivating the owner offers land to a cultivator for cultivating land on temporary basis and the cultivator is called ‘Sirtan’. The Sirtan or cultivator offers 1/3 of land produces to the owner (tyad, tiar, tihar). If there is shortage of cultivators, the owner takes only money as government levy. Owner has right for dismissing Sirtan for cultivating rights. If in village, there is no Sirtan available the owner calls other cultivators from nearby villages. Such cultivators were called Paykast. Paykasti was nothing but a temporary way of keeping land fertile. Paykast system was too temporary and Sirtan has long time agreement between owner and cultivators. “
In Traill time (1815-35, the cultivators were not easily available. There was a competition among owners for getting Sirtan or Paykast. Owners used to offer land even without tax or Tihar. The Sirtan or Paykast system was live till 1960 in Bhabhar or many parts of Garhwal.
Apart from Hissedar and Khaykar, other cultivators were put under Sirtan and there was confusion due to that system (Dabral).
Initially in British Raj, owners had power for dismissing Sirtan. However, from 1925, the rule was made or judgment was offered that in case a Sirtan was cultivating land and living in village for long he could not be dismissed. Suchh permanent Sirtan were called ‘Maurusi Sirtan’.
In each village, Harijans were established by upper caste. Their job was helping owners or masters in various ways, ploughing, helping in marriage, carrying masters and pulling dead animals for disposals. Those were given position of Sirtan in later British rule. Gairola suggested them calling ‘Muafi Khidmati’.
By 1925, the ownership of Sirtan and Khaykar was confirmed on land. Khaykar could offer land to other cultivators for temporary cultivation.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -930
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 46
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 7
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, 490-91
6- Tara Datt Gairola, Selected Revenue decisions of Kumaun. Page 222-223
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;