Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -9
itish Administration in Garhwal -65
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -83
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -920
Thokdari System (Land lordship)
In Garhwali Kingdom and Gurkha rule, Kamin or Sayana were supposed to do same work as Jamindar or Thekedar used to collect tax from cultivators or land owners. Ramsay stated that in Garhwal Kingdom, the king was free for appointing Sayana/Kamin for a particular region that used to collect tax from Khaikar (actual cultivators). Ramsay commented that due to that Sayana/Kamin system, the moral esteem of cultivators was nil in Garhwal. Garhwalis assumed themselves as slave of tax collectors.
In Traill settlement, British had agreement (Kaul Karar) with Sayana and Kamin. Those Sayana and Kamin were called Thokdar or landlord of the region. Those Thokdar started collecting ‘Hak-Dastur’ from those villages too those were not under them in Garhwali Kingdom-Gurkha periods
At British initial period, Kamin or Sayana were very powerful as they were in previous regimes. Kamin or Sayana used to collect tax either themselves or they appointed ‘Padhan’ for collecting tax.
Thokdars were very cunning. There is a folk story about Thokdar-
One day, settlement officer reached to a village. Thokdar called his shareholders or cultivators before the settlement officer. Thokdar asked the cultivator, “How are you?” The farmer answered either by force from Thokdar or in his simple way, “Malik Tumari diyun Khana Chhanvan –Master! We are living on your offerings”. Thokdar told to settlement officer, “See he is calling me Master (Malik)”. That way, Thokdar proved that he (Thokdar) was owner of whole region. (Dabral, page 228-29)
Pauw stated that he got Garhwal Kingdom records of words ‘Kamin from South Garhwal and ‘Sayana’ from north Garhwal. Pauw stated that he did not get any written record for Thokdar word.
Though Kamin and Sayana were having same meaning but those have differences too. Kamin used to collect tax but he did not have any shareholding on the land. Sayana was having shareholdings on some villages and from other villages, Sayana used to collect tax too without shareholding on land.
Sayana were of two types- small and big. Big Sayana were usually the heirs of ministers or higher cadre officers in the Garhwal Kingdom (Batten). Those proved in initial British period that they were Sayana they used to get ‘hak-dastur’ directly or through Padhan.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -921
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 226-29
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 39
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 121
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, page 22, 318
6- Batten, Settlement report of District Garhwal page 534
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;