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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

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Thursday, October 20, 2016

Records in Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal

Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -8

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -64       
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -82
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -919
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
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             Records for Cultivated Land


  There was yearly recording for cultivated land of Indian plains in British rule. However, the same procedure was not there for Garhwal and Kumaon.
  The records and maps of one settlement were used till next settlement. Only Dakhil Kharij (sales deeds or entry of heirs in case of owner’s death) was changed in the records. The numbers of cultivated farms in Garhwal were more than Indian plains villages (28 lakhs by Pauw settlement). Secondly, the expenses on measuring and drawing maps were costlier than the tax revenue.
  The system of Fant, Muntkheep and Khasra were important for land owners. However, the system was same as in Garhwali King Time or Gurkha. The officials were corrupt and used to take disadvantage for taking bribes. The officials used to cut the name and used to write other names on the records.
   Since, there was no scientific recording and mapping, there used to be confusion in case of disputes between two owners for land. The Patwari or other revenue officials used to change map and measurement as per their wishes. Since, most settlement were based on presemptive evidences, there were incorrect information were source for  disputes (Stowell page 19).

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 11/10/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -920
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 224, 225
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 14
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 15, 18
Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;