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Thursday, October 20, 2016

Kaini or Khurni in Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal

Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -17

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -73      
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -91
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -928
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
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            Taradatt Gairola suggested that instead of calling Pakka Khaykar they should be called as ‘under proprietors Malik Adna’.  Kaini or Khurni were the cultivators those were established by Thatwan. Those Kaini or Khurni were living nearby villages of Thatwan.
  According to Atkinson, the status of Kaini or Khurni was as slave, family servant or permanent servant. Kaini or Khurni used to do the family woks of owners too.
    Kaini or Khurni used to pay 1/3 of produces to owners and were different than Khaykar.  By 1882, Khaykar and Kaini were mixed with each other. As per Traill, Kaini used to pay higher tax than Khaykar. If a Kaini died without heirs the land would go to land owner (Thatwan). Batten wrote that Kaini were converting Khaykar very fast. Perhaps, Kaini or Khurni status was not recorded in British record. (Atkinson)

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/10/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -929
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 46
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 61
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, 490-91
6- Tara Datt Gairola, Selected Revenue decisions of Kumaun. Page 74-146
Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;