Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -12
itish Administration in Garhwal -68
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -86
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -923
Types of Owners
In past and even in Tehri Kingdom, the real owner of whole land was King. However, British officials felt illogical to be owners of whole land ‘Kaiser-E-Hind Milkiyat. Therefore, Traill worked for knowing the real owners of land. There were two types of land owners or cultivators-
Khudkast- Those used to cultivate on their land. They were responsible for paying tax on their land. In case, they failed for paying tax the government could take back the land in their possession.
Paykast- Paykast cultivators were temporary cultivators. They used to take land on loan on temporary basis and cultivate the land of other owners. If Paykast used to live there in that village for long, Paykast were called ‘Sirtan’.
Pyakast or Sirtan cultivators used to take permission from real owners for every uses. Main owners had right for dismissing ‘Sirtan or Paykast. Therefore, Sirtan used to pay less tax (Sirti). Main owners used to collect ‘Sirti (tax)’ from Sirtan. From state tax records point of view, there was no importance of ‘Sirtan or “Paykast’. Faujdar, Negi, Kamin or Sayana used to collect ‘Sirti’ from Sirtan. Those officials used to get ‘Hakk Dasture for their works.
There were following types of Khudkast-
1-Khaykar of King- They were cultivators for centuries. They dig hills and made the cultivated land. Mostly, they were Khasiya. Kamin or Sayana used to collect tax from them.
2-Thatwan--The kings rewarded land to various owners for bravery, state works or other reasons. Those were called ‘Thatwan’. Under Thatwan (owners), there were Khaykar or real cultivators but not owners. Thatwan used to take tax from Khaykar. Kingdom did not have connection with Khaykar. Thatwan had right to dismiss cultivators.
2-Vritivan – Kings used to offer villages as ‘Raut’ to many awardees for as service (Chakri), Negichari (service), ‘Astrology’, Mantra-tantra , Kmainchari, Mana chaunl, Jayjad etc. Initially those Vritiwan (especially Brahmins) were not land owners but used to get tax from cultivators of those villages. However, slowly with age, many cultivators left the villages, childless cultivators; the Vritiwan took rights on those villages and became Thatwan (owners, proprietors) . Pauw described about Vritiwan becoming Thatwan. (Dabral)
3-Naya Awad Wale- in Gurkha regime, many cultivators left their villages due to oppression. Gurkha officials established new farmers for cultivating the uncultivated land. British government also encouraged new cultivators.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org 15/
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -924
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 51
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 116, 118,, 124
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3,
6- Batten, Settlement report of District Garhwal page 488
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;