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Monday, October 10, 2016

Bhotiya region Revenue and Hakk Dastur in Beckett Settlement

  Characteristics of Beckett Settlement in Garhwal -10

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -44       
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -61
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -898
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  Sir Henry Ramsay wrote comments for Beckett Settlement, “Before, in early settlement, the past tax was the base for tax determination.  The tax determination was based on land measurement in Beckett settlement. He decided tax in agriculture prosperous region based on population and Beesee land.  Beckett determined tax on the regions those were less prosperous or economy deepened on trade on the basis of population and economic conditions. Therefore, tax on Bhotiya Malhas of Malla Painkhanda could be called ‘Mund Kar’.  It would be wise decision for tax determination on the basis of numbers of cattle, sheep, goat in Bhotiya Malhas regions of Kumaon and Garhwal. Beckett was aware about the dependency of prosperity on numbers of cattle, sheep, and goat. However, his views were that people could hide the cattle. Therefore, he took base of tax on numbers of human population” (Atkinson)
                     Hakk Dastur Cash Amount in Beckett Settlement

  There was mention of ‘Hakk Dastur’ tax to be taken by ‘hissedar, padhan and thokdar’from land owners in Karar Patta of Batten settlement. Hissedar (Thokdar or Padhan) used to make list with eagerness and used collecting the tax from land owners. However, in many regions, it became difficult for Hissedar (Thokdar or Padhan) in collecting Dasture from Khaykars (those used to cultivate land for many generations but were not owners). Khaykars wanted a position of land owners.  Such Khaykars refused to obey the order that their villages were under any Hissedar, padhan or Thokdar. Khaykars argued by showing court cases in Garhwal Kingdom and Gurkha rule that the appointment for Sayana were for law and order (faujdari, judiciary etc). Khaykars from Gujadu and Malla Salan refused sign for paying Dastur or Bhent to Sayanas (Hissedar) on Karar Patta. They did not want to transfer their ownership to other persons. Batten decided a fix cash amount in place of Bhent or Dastur for settling the issue where the he got proofs for Hissedari of Hissedar/Sayana.Sayana or Hissedar also became ready for cash. 
 Beckett made universal rule for cash in place of Dastur and Bhent. Malgujar had to pay tax in case land owners did not pay. Therefore, a portion of money was necessary for Malgujar (tax collector, padhan etc).  Beckett decided maximum of 20% of tax for Bhent cash for Khayakar.
Initially, in British rule, Malgujar were also looking after judiciary, law and order. They took disadvantages. Therefore, in 1856, British government took back police and judiciary authorities from Malgujar. (Atkinson, page 318, Beckett page 11))  

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/9/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -899
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page-198-199
2- Atkinson, Himalayan districts vol.3, 299-300
3- Batten, Settlement reports of District Garhwal 535


History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;