Characteristics of Pau Settlement in Garhwal -7
itish Administration in Garhwal -52
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -70
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -907
Bhotiyas of Bhotiya region pleaded to Pau that they were unable for paying tax as per Beckett settlement because of low income. They argued that government should not levy tax on animals. Bhotiyas argued that they had to pay forest grazing tax in Bhabhar too. Pau did not agree with Bhotiya arguments about low income. However, he agreed for reducing tax on animals. Tibet government also reduced tax for Bhotiya traders of Neeti region. Pau had to abolish trade tax on Bhotiya trade tax. Pau levied tax on agricultural land and forest products. Forest product tax was on medical herbs and other utility herbs. Pau determined tax on animal grazing after determining tax on agriculture land and forest produces. He exempted for five bulls on taxed land for one rupee.
The following factors are very interesting on determining animal tax-
1 bull=1 caw = 1 donkey= 4 sheep= 4 goat
8 sheep=8 goats= 1Yake =1 horse= 1 buffalo
Pau determined the grazing tax as follows after exempting five bulls equal to one rupee tax.
Tax Rupee One on 40 sheep=40 goat= 10 bulls=10 caws= 10 donkeys =5 Jubu=5 Yak= 5 horses= 5 buffalos
The tax determination on Neeti was Rs 593 through the above factor (Walton).
The tax was determined for Mana valley different factors.
Mana villages were under Goonth . Mana Bhotiya did not take animals to Bhabhar. In Pandukeshwar,Mana villages had land and houses were there. Bhotiyas had offered those houses to businessmen on rent. Average rent of a shop was Rs. 80 annual. That amount was very high income from that time point of view. Mana villagers used to sell wood to Badrinath temple too and it was reasonable income. Therefore, Pau kept tax same as Beckett settlement (Pau, pp 108)
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -908
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page-210
2- Pau, Garhwal Settlement report, page109
3- Walton, Garhwal Gazetteer
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;