Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -15
itish Administration in Garhwal -71
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -89
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -926
The ownership of Khayakar were determined in the following circumstances –
1-Those became Khayakar of Thatwan in Garhwal and Gorkha regime
2-Though, they were King’s Khayakar but due to deceptive methods by Padhan, Thokdar etc were made Khaykar in early British period (Pauw, page 33)
3- Kairni or Khurni- Those were settled by Thatwan (owner) and they used to cultivate land and used to pay one third of produces to Thatwan. Kairni or Khurni used to do other jobs for Thatwan as carrying people through ‘pinus’ etc
4- Registered Khaykar in British records
5- Sirtan were promoted as Khaykar in British Raj (Stowel, page 63)
6- British made a rule that if a Sirtan build a new land by digging hills for a Thatwan that land would be under that Sirtan as Khaykar. (Stowel 64)
Permanent and temporary (Pakke and Kacche) Khayakar
In case, the Thatwan was also living in same village where his Khayakars were living and Thatwan was also cultivator, such Khaykar were called ‘Kacche Khayakar’. If a permanent Khaykar died without sons, in that case the new Khaykar under Thatwal would be called kaccha Khaykar.
If the Khaykar were living in a separate village (where Thatwan was not living) such Khaykar were called ‘Pakke’ Khaykar. In case, the Khaykar died without son the Thatwan would not become Hissedar of that land but the Khaykar villager used to become Khaykar.
Tax on Khaykar
The Khaykar had to pay tax as per determination to the government through Thatwan. Khaykar had to pay additional 20% of tax to Thatwan too from Pauw settlement.
Khaykar used to be a permanent structure that sons used to be owner of the land but Khaykar did not have right for selling the land.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -927
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 37
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, 490
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;