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Thursday, October 20, 2016

Disputes among Khaykar and Hissedar in Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal

 Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -16

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -72      
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History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -90
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -927
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
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         Stowell wrote that there had been disputes among Khaykars and Hissedar, successions for Khaykar land from the beginning of British Raj. Stowell (page 61)wrote that due to Khaykar being in small numbers and weaker class, Khaykar were always on receiving end and they were losers most of the time.  Even the government officials favored the land owners (Hissedar) and not the real land cultivators.
   In Pauw or other settlements and reports, every official showed concerned for Khaykars or real cultivators but did not make any law for keeping Khaykar right intact. Khaykar, Sirtan system was stopped in 1960. In many cases, Khudkast (owner cum cultivators) villages were converted Khaykar villages. There were contradictions between board of revenues and Kumaun commissioner office, courts.  In 1914, government decided for bringing the three land revenue legislation as per Stowell committee (report) drafts. However, the decision was not taken. In 1932-33, the bills were introduced for Kumaon land bills (owners etc) but after discussion, no decision was taken for those bills. (Tara Datt Gairola)

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/10/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -928
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 46
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 61
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, 490-91
6- Tara Datt Gairola, Selected Revenue decisions of  Kumaun.
Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;