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Thursday, October 20, 2016

Duties, Responsibilities and Administrative Rights for Padhan in Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal

Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -11

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -67      
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -85
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -922
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

           In Traill settlement, government used to fix tax for a region (Thok) for Kamin or Sayana. Sayana or Kamin used to collect tax from cultivators or used to appoint Padhan for a particular area (village or villages). Padhan used to collect tax from villagers and used to pay to Kamin/Sayana. Sayana/Kamin had rights for appointing and dismissing Padhan.
  In third Traill settlement, government had agreement (Kaul-Karar- Patta) directly with Padhans. Now, the Padhan position in administration and among villagers increased. Padhan became free from Kamin/Sayana and was reporting directly with the government. However, due to old custom, Thokdar or Kamin/Sayana were getting Hakk-Dastur. Padhan was called Malgujar (tax collector). In initial Traill period, Malgujar word was also used for Sayana and Kamin. Later on in Becket and Ramsey settlements, each owner became Malgujar and Padhan was named as ‘Sadar Malgujar’.
  Traill wrote (Stowellpage18) –
  “Padhan is for tax collection and keeping law and order in the village. In a way Padhan is government servant.
  Padhan collects tax from owners and also pay his land tax. Padhan is given extra land (Jithana) for his services. Villagers pay tribute to Padhan at festive, auspicious or marriage time. Though, Padhan is not offered as per dynasty system but the custom is that the eldest son gets Padhan position.
    Padhan had many Khaykars (cultivators but not owners). If there are all Khaykars in a particular village, Khaykar choose their Khaykar Padhan. However, when there are owners and Khaykar in a village, Khaykar can’t be Padhan.
  Padhan is also responsible for looking after Banjar land. He can offer land to ‘Paykast’ for cultivating the land. Padhan also manages the Kuli begar for officials. “
  Batten offered free hand for choosing two Padhans from big village (as till 60, there were two Padhans in Kathur Bara, Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal). A Padhan could be Padhan for many villages (Example, Gweel Padhan (Malla Dhangu) was having eight nine villages (Gweel, Jaspur, Saur, Chhatinda, Metha, Kharik) under him).
            Deputy Commissioner had rights for dismissing Padhan on following grounds (Stowell, page 113)-
Criminals proved by court
Under heavy debts
Pledging  villages to money lenders
Sold villages land
Bad character
Making losses to government resources

                  Padhan Hakk (rights)

   Government offered Padhan a tax free land (Jithanu, Jethunda or Padhanchari khet) in exchange of tax collection. Padhan was Sirtan of Kesar –E-Hind for that land. If the tax calculation on ‘Jethunda’ land was less than five percent of total determined tax by Padhan, the Padhan used to get balance money from tax (to make five percent). Padhan family was free from Kuli Bardayast. It was great honor for Padhan family.  Thokdar were free from kuli Bardayast too.

                              Gharpadhan of Khaykar villages

       If in a village, all are Khaykar and no owners were there, villagers had a Gharpadhan in such villages. Gharpadhan was elected by concurrences of all villagers. Usually, deputy commissioner and Malgujar used to select ‘Gharpadhan’. He used to collect tax from Khaykars (non owners but had right on land) and deposited to Patwari.  Gharpadhan was exempted from Kuli Begar.
          Where, Hiissedar (owners) and Khaykar were there in a village, Malgujar /Padhan used to select a person as Gharpadhan. However, his position was more than Khaykar Gharpadhan as he was owner of land too.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/10/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -923
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 231-32
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 39
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 18, 124
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, page 22, 318
6- Batten, Settlement report of District Garhwal page 534

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;