Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -13
itish Administration in Garhwal -69
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -87
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -924
Traill, included all as Hissedar (proprietor) those got ownership in Garhwal Kingdom, Gorkha regime. Trail also put Khaykar of King into Hissedar category. In case, the villagers had been living and cultivating farms but were paying tax to Thatwan in Garhwal Kingdom or Gorkha rule, Traill kept them on Khaykar category (Atkinson, page 486).
Traill wrote that it was easy for knowing whether the cultivator was owner or Khaykar by asking the cultivator for getting land (questions as how, who offered and what was situation). If the cultivator got land through Thokdar, the cultivator would be kept in Khaykar category. If the cultivator was offered land from King though ‘sanad’ (order) or cultivator bought land from Thatwan the cultivator would be kept in Hissedar (proprietor) category. (Traill report in Atkinson, 490)
Traill wrote that by asking other Thatwan, it was easy for knowing the status of cultivators. If any cultivator’s sir name is in the name of a village where he was living it was obvious that cultivator was cultivating land for long.
In British time, the official put following cultivators in Hissedar category (Atkinson 490)-
1-Cultivators were living in the village for centuries as Dabral in Dabar, Kukreti in Jaspur, and Dhoundiyal in Dhound and were not proved as Khaykar, Paykast or Sirtan under any Thatwan at the time of enquiry.
2- Those got ‘Sanad’ (order) from Garhwal Kingdom or Gurkha rule.
3-Those proved that they were Thatwan at initial British time
4-Those initiated making barren land into cultivated land in Gorkha or British rule (Naya Avad, new possession)
5- Those bought land from Thatwan or properties or buying land through court auction
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -925
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages 1 to 11
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 51
4-Stowell, V.A., Manual of Land Tenures in Kumaon division page 116, 118,, 124
5- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.3, 490, 486
6- Batten, Settlement report of District Garhwal page 488
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;