British Administration in Garhwal -143
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -163
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -997
Trail and his couple of successors remained Commissioners of Kumaon for long. Those officers got fair knowledge of customary laws of Garhwal and Kumaon. Initially, they applied all customary laws for taking judiciary decisions as disputes for properties among heirs. Later on the doors for Board of Rand High courts were opened. Then, Lawyers started exploiting the situations by suggesting people for going to higher court against local judiciary decisions.
Mostly, in Garhwal, Khaspeople used Khas system of offering rights to heirs was applied even in initial British rules. However, after 1835, the government sent officials from plains to Garhwal, Kumaon. They applied laws of Indian plains as ‘Mitakshary. They believed that till solid proofs were not there court should not take decisions. Officials from plains assumed Khas as part of Hindus.
There was unrest among people for applying rules of plains in hills.
Tehri Riyasat published Narendra Hindu law written by Prime Minister Hari Krishna Raturi in 1917.
United Province Government appointed Panna Lal for studying customary laws of Kumaon. Panna lal wrote a book ‘ Kumaon local customs’ and government published that book in 1920. UP government published works of Dr L.D. Joshi as ‘Khas family law’ in 1929. Kumaon courts took references of those books for settling Khas disputes for heirs.
Even, crooks started taking disadvantages of book by Panna Lal.
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 313 -333
2- Pannalal , Customary laws in Kumaon , page 6
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -998
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement , History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Patwari , Civil Police History of British Rule, Forest settlement, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;