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Friday, July 28, 2017

Prisons in Garhwal and Kumaon in British Rule

British Administration in Garhwal   -137
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History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -157
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            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -991
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

    Trail and Gardner established prisons in Shrinagar and Almora. After Pauri becoming capital of Garhwal, authorities established prison in Pauri. Government erected remand rooms in Police posts at Shrinagar, Lansdowne, Kotdwara, Pauri, Devprayag and Joshimath.
  In 1816, Trail repaired Shrinagar prison and started system of handcuff and foot cuffs for taking accused.   
               There was improvement for prisoners in 1817. Government sanctioned 3 paise instead of 2.5 paise on daily food expenses on a prisoner. Government decided offering one blanket each to a prisoner for a year. Government made provision for Rs.18 annually on clothing to each prisoner. Government alos provided a Dhoti or bedsheet, two mats, a bed and Rajai  annually to each prisoner. The old clothing and bedding used to be burnt every  year. The maximum annual budget for a prisoner was rs20.
  Due to new rule, for five years, there were lesser crimes in hills. However, by 1821, the crime rates started increasing or might be that officials started recording crimes properly.
  Bird criticized the Trail administration that many so called accused were cuffed without any strong evidence. There was no written procedure for recording the crimes and in most of cases; there was no hearing for criminals in court. Those criminals were used as slave labor for years. People named Trail administration as Trail-Gardi (. People started desiring rule by Sudarshan Shah in Garhwal and Chand rule in Kumaon.
  At the time of 1857 movement, Ramsey used prisoners as  loaders for English citizens came to Hills for taking shelters. Ramsey promised those prisoners that if they worked properly they would be freed from jails.  

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References  
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 313 -333
 2- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol 2 pages 507-520
3-Pande, Kumaun ka Itihas
4-Pre Mutiny records, Kumaun 1817, part-1, vol.10

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Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India,bjkukreti@gmail.com /12/7/2017
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -992
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*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
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(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement , History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement ,  History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Patwari , Civil Police History of British Rule, Forest settlement,  Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;