British Administration in Garhwal -136
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -156
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -990
Dr. Dabral described in details of selling the women as commodity in Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5 pages 167. There was shortage of females in western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab due to gender differences. There was high demand for prostitutes in cities of those regions. Therefore, there was trend for kidnapping or selling the hill women to the traders. Gorkha officials established ‘market for slaves’ in Haridwar as depo.
In 1822, British administration banned selling of wife or selling the widow by relatives. British authorities mad the sales of women and children as illegal act and kept provision for punishment.
Glin wrote in 1822 that –The tradition of selling children, women or family servants is common in Garhwal and Kumaun. The Bhotias from north and Rohilas in plains were major buyers fro buying humans.
British authorities were of opinion that there was no need for law banning sales of children as parents love their children and would sell only in worst circumstances. Trail was of that opinion.
Trail passed an order that the court would not entertain the pleas of masters for complains of their slaves escaping away from their house. The administration denied the demand by Tehri Riyasat King Sudarshan Shah for handing over his slaves ran into British Garhwal. However, it was not enough for ending slavery custom.
In a report of 1830, there were following types of Das or slaves-
1-Salves for family works ( from Khas Rajput)
2-Sales for agriculture works (from Harijan castes)
The masters used to provide for food, clothing and shelter for their slave. Masters were free for selling their slaves. There used to be sales agreements for selling slaves, women or children.
In1829, British finished the custom of slave selling and Sati by a law. Sati practicing custom was very rare in Garhwal and Kumaon before British period too.
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 313 -333
2- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol 2 pages 507-520
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -991
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement , History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Patwari , Civil Police History of British Rule, Forest settlement, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;