British Administration in Garhwal -143
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -163
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -997
After crooked lawyers came into Garhwal judiciary system, people started facing unheard problems. Due to expanding hearing dates regularly by lawyers and new complex judiciary system, people got difficulties in getting justice in time. Bureaucracy, greedy lawyers and complex laws made judiciary out of reach from common men. It was difficult for common men taking witnesses regularly to the court far away from their villages. Slowly, slowly common people started accepting oppression, suppression and injustice. Old, women, children and source less people faced hardship by new judiciary system.
Justice became costly. Court peon, court file record keepers, writers, copy makers, clerks, police , application writers/registration clerk etc and lawyers used to take advance money from justice seekers. There was fess 9under the table) at every step in judicial procedure.
Delay in judiciary was so problematics that for decades, there was no court decision. There were ways for appealing upper courts after lower court orders. Hakim or judges were usually on tour.
In those circumstances, a community of judiciary brokers took birth. Common names for those brokers were ‘Chaturband’ or jalsaj’. They used to become witnesses or used to become link between lawyers or court officials.
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 313 -333
2- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol 2 pages 507-555, 689-695
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -998
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement , History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Patwari , Civil Police History of British Rule, Forest settlement, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;