British Administration in Garhwal -123
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -139
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -976
The forests of ranging from Ramganga to Palain at south east corner were under Garhwal division forest and headquarter was in Nainital. However officials used to shift headquarter from Naital to Ramnagar from April to November when wood cutting was carried on.
The area of Garhwal Division was 134354 acres.
There were four forest ranges under Garhwal division-
Adnala and Mandal range were in between Ramganga and Palain . While, south Patalidun and Dhara forest range were at south . In the notifications of 1879,1879, 1886 and 1890, those forest range were reserved forests.
Ranger or deputy ranger was in charge for each range. Foresters and forest guards were under rangers. Forest ranges were divided into beats and forest guards were responsible for their beat. There were 6 beats under each of Adnala and Mandal range and 4 each under South Patalidun and Dharaa ranges.
T.B Bryant prepared a working plan for Garhwal division forests in 1896.
In working plan, there were provisions for cleaning climbing vegetation, cutting shrubs and selection –branding of trees before auction. There working plans for selling other forest produces. From 1876, officials took steps for avoiding forest fire too. Before world war furst, the annual expenses on stopping fire were Rs. 4600.
Bamboo and Sal wood were major exporting items. Sal trees were cut in forests and cut logs were either flown or carried out to Mandis as Delhi, Meerut, Muradabad and Kanpur. There were huge depos at Jaspur and Badhapur. Bamboos were flown to Bareli and Kanpur through Ramganga River. Other produces were sold at local depos.
In 1898-99, 1907-08, the annual average income was 75346 and expenditure was Rs. 31874. In 1893-94, there was survey for the rights of villages and officials offered letter to villagers.
Woods were load at Ramnagar, Dhampur and Nagina railway stations. There were roads reaching to forests and inside forests too. There were Forest Rest Hoses in forests and in cities. There were provisions for constructing and maintaining for roads and rest houses. The average expenses on construction were Rs. 4500 and maintenance expense was Rs 2400 annually.
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 287-312
2- Walton Garhwal Gazetteer pages 11-15
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -977
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement , History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement , History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; Forest settlement ,
History of British Rule, Forest settlement , Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Forest settlement ,