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Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Disturbances in Gyanchandra period in Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Medieval Period Part -2

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 153

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

             Disturbances in Gyanchandra, the Chand King of Champawat Period (1367-1420)

           Attacks of Delhi Sultan Badshahs on Katehr/Katehar and Kumaon

 The Gyanchandra commander Nalu Kathayat was able to stop the attack of Muslim regional army commander of Delhi Sultan. Gyanchand, Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand offered Nalu the Raut ( Thokdari or Jameendari to Nalu.
                  In 1414, Khijr Khan (1414-1421) a soldier of Tuglak ruler took over Delhi Sultan kingdom. He sent his aid Tuj –ul-Mulk (1421) to suppress the rebellion of Raja Hari Singh of Katehar.  The Raja of Katehar Hari Singh fled into forest but finally Hari Singh accepted to pay tribute in future.
          Hari Singh now Jameendar of Khijr Khan declared freedom in 1416a dn stopped paying taxes/tribute to Delhi Sultan. Again in 1418, Khijr Khand sent Taj-ul-Mulk with huge army to suppress Hari Singh.

        When Khijr Khan Army led by Taj-ul-Mulk crossed Ganga , the king of Katehar/Katehr Hari Singh used ‘Sad-Funk’ strategy that Sultan army do not get food or stopping food supply strategy was used by Hari Singh of Katehar/Katehr. Hari Singh the king of Katehr/Katehar burnt or destroyed the food articles and fled into huge Anwala jungle (around 24 miles).

             The Sultan army led by Taj-ul-Mulk surrounded the whole jungle from all direction. Hari Singh had come into open to fight with Sultan Army.  Sultan army defeated Hari Singh and captured materials, horses and ammunitions.  Hari Singh had to flee into Kumaon.
Khijr Khan attacked Katehar/Katehr in 1419 too.
          Attacks of Delhi Sultan army on Kumaon
                  When Katehar/Katehr Hari Singh fled into Kumaon, Taj-ulk-Mulk stayed in Katehar and he ordered his army to march into Kumaon for following Katehar king Hari Singh. It seems that Sultan army crossed Ramganga in between Shahabad and Moradabad for reaching Kumaon. The Sultan army would have crossed present Tanda, Thakurdwara, Kashipur, and Jaspur and then would have reached towards Ramnagar. Definitely Sultan army reached to Talla Desh and mal of Kumaon. Unable to find Katehar/Katehr king Hari Singh, the Sutan army looted Kumaon reagion and captured animals and hundreds of human beings and made them slaves. The Sultan army looted hills of Nainital.

                       Killing of Nalu Kathayat

              Atkinson states about killing of Nalu Kathayat by Gyan Chand or Gyanchandra but did not provide historical logical analysis. Dr. Dabral analyzed folklore and history aspects both.
               Gyanchand offered Raut (Jagirdari or Thokdari) to Nalu Kathayat that he takes care of Mal region. When huge Sultan army entered into Kumaon Mal, Nalu did not have that much power to resist Sultan army. The army of Nalu ran from Mal towards hills and Nalu also might have run into hills.
            When Nalu was supposed to meet King Gyan Chandra/Gyanchand, a commander or court member Jassa complained to king that Nalu did not protect mal. Jassa of Kamlekh village was jealous to Nalu Kathayat because of Nalu getting award from the king. King Gyan Chand sent message to Nalu to go for  Mal for  protecting Mal. However, Nalu Kathayat without formal dress came to court for telling the true situation.
             Jassa complained to king that Nalu had come without proper and formal dress to meet the King and Nalu wanted to insult the king. On that time Kumaoni kings started behaving as Delhi Sultan that their court member should meet the king in formal court dress. Champawat king Gyan Chand refused meeting Nalu Kathayat and ordered Nalu to return and insulted his ego.
             The wife of Nalu was from Sirmola village. Her father was a leading person of Mara group in Champawat. Nalu sent his sons Suju and Badu to his in law that he (his in law) do some arrangement for compromise between him (Nalu) and king.
      Those two sons forgot ways reaching Champawat and were captured by Jassa. Jassa convinced the king that Nalu sent his sons to kill the king. The king sent two sons of Nalu in prison and made them blind.
 In rage, Nalu organized Mara group people and attacked the king. Nalu destroyed Kamlekh Garh the village of Jassa.  A century back, There were ruins of destruction in Kamlekh village. Nalu killed Jassa but did not harm the king.
 Though, there was calm between Gyan Chand and Nalu Kathayat the king was not at ease. The king killed Nalu Kathayat deceptively.
 Dr Dabral did not believe that Gyan Chand did believe blindly on Jassa.  

                    Characteristics of Nalu Kathayat
  Nalu Kathayat was brave commander that Gyan Chand offered him the task of protecting Bhabhar region. The Bhabhar region or Mal region was always vulnerable for attack from Delhi Sultan and his regional commanders of Moradabad, Bijnor , Pilibhit etc. Nalu Kathayat tried his best in protecting Mal. However, Nalu was unable to resist huge army of Sultan led by Taj-ul-Mulk and had to run from Mal.

## Read Characteristics of King Gyan Chand/Gyanchandra/Gyan Chandra in History of Uttarakhand part 154
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -154
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Notes on Chand dynasty kings of Medieval Age Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Champawat, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Jaspur, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Ashadhgarh, Dada gaon, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Khetikhan, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Gudamagal Ganv, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bhabhar, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Madhuva ki Mal, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Bahedi, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Kicchha, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Chorgaliya, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bankheda, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Thakurdwara Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of kamlekh ganv  Champawat Kumaon; Medieval Age History of Katehar/Katehr; History of Sambahl; Medieval Age History aspects of Delhi Sultanate nearby region of Kumaon; Medieval Age History of Taj-ul Mulk entering Kumaon;  History of Khijr Khan at the time of Kumaoni king Gyan Chand of Medieval Age