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Thursday, September 19, 2013

Was Somchand the founder of Chand Dynasty in Kumaon?

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 147

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti
      
           Apart from Thorchand as founder of Chand Dynasty, there are other theories of founder of Chand dynasty in Kumaon.
 One of theory is that Somchand was the real founder of Chand dynasty.
 According to a folk sayings (collected by Atkinson, 1882), there were disturbances in Sui Garh due to old Raut rulers not accepting the rule of Baichhaldev Katyuri.   There was sour opposition between Katyuri ruler (who came because of defeat) and Raut Raja. The people were also divided in groups. It was decided that a third king should be called. Learned people brought a bright, brave person Somdev from Jhunsi near Allahabad. Somdev was from Chandra dynasty family of Kannauj. The scholars read his Janmpatri through astrological means and found that Somchand had fortune for becoming king.
Somchand was made king of Champawat.
 The logic does not support that Somchand was made king of Champawat as there were two Katyuri kings in the region.  Dr. Dabral states that the folk sayings do not have any base.
Another illogical story was spread at the beginning of British rule that Baichhaldev Katyuri king requested Somchand to settle in Champawat. Old, weak Katyuri king Baichhaldev donated land in Champawat and declared Somchand as chieftain or Raja of Champawat. According to illogical folk story, the timing of Somchand was 742 AD. In this period, the Katyuri capital was in Joshimath (today’s Garhwal) and not in Champawat (today’s Kumaon).
One story states that Vikram Singh Bora, Dharmsingh Bora, Mansingh Bora brought Somchand from Jhunsi. They arranged marriage of Somchand with a daughter of Katyuri Samant or commander.
Another folk saying states that Prince Somchand was son of Khadagsing the ruler of Kalinjar. In 1208, Somchand came to Kumaon with Sudhanidhi Chaube Subedar,Buddhi Singh Tdagi Diwan and twenty four other persons .
The illogical folk story states that Somchand  went to Badrinath with six Pundits, three Thakur,two Dhiwar, one barber, do chadi Bardar, one Panvari, two Khidmatdar, and one Chanvar-bardar.
Another folk story states that Somchand was from Khadagsingh family of Kalinjar and not from Jhunsi . There was rule of Gahadwal kings on Banaras and Kannauj from 1090-1226AD. These kings used to have name ending with Chandra.
 There is no sufficient proof that any time Somchand was ruler of Champawat. That means some interested people spread the imaginative folk sayings for getting some befits from British rulers.
There are inscriptional proofs those match with folk sayings that Singh rulers were there in Champawat from 1160-1223 AD.
There is no any temple, Nauli, chabutara before twelfth or thirteenth century that was built by any Chand chieftain/Thokdar or Gadhpati.
 Therefore it cannot be said that Somchand was the founder of Chand dynasty.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -148
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)