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Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 139

      Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath-Dwarhat- Karvipur (Uttarakhand, India) – 23

           
          (Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (1236-1790 AD)

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti
       The Katyuri lost their kingdom in Baijnath by 1360. There are many historical and folklore evidences for the reasoning of fall, collapse, disintegration, crumbling of Katyuri rule in Baijnath-Dwarhat region. However, three  major reasons are more important for the fall, collapse of Katyuri rule from Dwarhat-Baijnath region.   

                       Shifting of Capital
  Initially the Katyuri capital was in Kartikeyapur (Joshimath region). It was a compulsion that Nar Singh Dev shifted the Katyuri capital at Baidnath Kartikeyapur (Baijnath).
               Baidnath/Baijnath Kartikeyapur was appropriate place as centrally located place to keep eyes on Kedarbhumi (Garhwal) and Manasbhumi (Kumaon).
         Before Krachalla attacked on Katyuris, the Chauhans captured Kedarbhumi (Garhwal). Katyuri kingdom was shrunk to Manasbhumi (Kumaon).
        Niranjan Dev shifted his capital to Doti (today-Nepal). Doti was far away from Baijnath and west Uttarakhand (today’s Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Saharanpur, and Bijnor). One of the reasons for fall of Katyuri imperialism was the shifting attention from super Garhwal region, Haridwar, Saharanpur, Bijnor to Doti.
                      No winnable Strategy to Control Regional ambitions
The regional governors or chieftains became kings of their own territories in western Uttarakhand.  The Katyuri kings of later period did not chalked out a winnable strategy for controlling regional chieftains.

                  Attacks by Muslim Invaders
                        There were continuous Muslim attacks on North India territories and Uttarakhand too from eleventh century till Mogul period.
  The Muslim ruler attacks affected political, social, religious culture of Uttarakhand in each decades from eleventh century till the British took over.
            Arrival of Chauhan warriors and Brahmins
        Due to Muslim attacks in North India, the Chauhan warriors took shelters in hills of Uttarakhand. Slowly they took over Thakurai or Gadh by displacing original Khasya. Along with Chauhans, Brahmins also came and they also took charge of religious and political culture.
  The Chauhans captured rules over Shivalik, Salan, Lakhamandal, Rath-Chanth Mandal and Dumg  mandal.
                 These Chauhans became famous as Jhikwan, Tulsara, Makrola, Parsara, Raut, Dhammada, Bisht, Aswal, Lohman Negi etc.
            Chauhan Gadhpati  of Garhwal, Lalkhamandal, Rath –Chanth were also badly affected due to Muslim attacks.
        
          The rule of Chauhans of Lakhamandal was extended Ambala, Saharanpur including part or total Haridwar, Dhad –Bhabhar of Saharanpur in south, Dehradun, Sirmaur, Jaunsar and hills nearby Jaunsar. It seems Chauhan had rule over Bhabhar of Garhwal.

  Rulers of Lakhamandal Region (Ravain Region of Dehradun) before and after thirteenth century

Unknown kings and successors ---------------------------1230-1250
Rana Devpal ---------------------------------------------------1250-1280
Chauhans or Bahuban of Ekchakra, Sarup, Karndev, Uddharan, Chandrasen, Suryasen, Devsen, 1280-1385
 Dumag naresh mangalsen  ----------------------------------------1353-1390
Ratansen----------------------------------------------------------------1390-1420

                       Attack by Iltutmish Mandavar (Haridwar)
                 Sultan Iltutmish attacked on Mandurgarh fort of Shivalik region of Uttarakhand in 1227. This place is recognized as Mandavar or and hills of Chandi.
 The minister of Razia Begham took shelter in Sirmaur hills.
                  Attack by Balban
Balban the army chief of Sultan Nasiruddin attacked foot hills of Shivalik region in 1250
  
             Looting by Subedar of Meerut
   The Subedar of Meerut looted the region Haridwar (Mayapur) and Rurki in 1254. Th region was under Rana Devpalof Lakhamandal.
                                          Killing People by Sultan Nasiruddin  
                In 1254, Balban campaigned with army for wining Badaun, Sambhal etc. The army reached by crossing Ganga at Chandi Ghat (Haridwar) and reached to Ram Ganga bank. There was resistance from local chieftain in Tanklavali.  A Muslim army commander Ijjauddin Darmashi was killed at Tanklavali. Sultan Nasiruddin order for killing innocent people. Thousands of people were killed.
           Destruction of Lakhamandal by Balban
           The hakim of Awadh Kutgalkhan took shelter under Rana Devpal at Santur after defeat from Sultan Nasiruddin in 1256. Nasiruddin sent his chief Balban to Lakhamandal. Balban destructed Lakhamandal. Balban killed thousands and thousands Hindus with cruelty.  The killing is one the cruel most killings of Uttarakhand by Muslim rulers.

               Attacks on Uttarakhand by Successors of Changej Khan

             In 1305, the successors of Changej Khan -Alibeg and Tartak attacked India. These blood thirsty reached Shivalik region of Uttarakhand and spread in Yamuna valley. People ran towards east of Ganga. Howevver, the Muslim invaders reached there too and looted, destructed villages.
              The successors of Changej Khan -Alibeg and Tartak destroyed Saharanpur, Haridwar, lakhamandal and Bhabhar of Uttarakhand.
      Destruction by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq

          The campaign of Mohammad bin Tughlaq destroyed eastern Kedarbhumi (east Garhwal) and west Manas  Bhumi (Kumaon  ) in 1338.
                Delhi Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq sent army of laksh of cavaliers and armed force to capture central of Himalaya. The attack was on central parts of Kumaon and Garhwal.  They were there in Himalaya for two months and showed their cruelty.  When the army of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq was returning it was rainy season. The army got epidemic. People killed army that was caught in river bank by stones. A few armed men reached back to Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq insulted them and killed them in Delhi.
           Howver, there was destruction of armed forces, wealth, materials, people and power of Katyuri king of Dwarhat-Baijnath and king of Devalgarh.

 ### Read more about Attack by Muslim Sultans in next chapter  
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -140
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)

Notes on Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Kumaon  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  ofNorth India  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Almora in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Oriental region  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of South Asian region in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Bageshwar  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Bhabhar Kumaon in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History