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Thursday, September 12, 2013

Mandalik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History part-1

 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 141


                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                             Mandalik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

              Krachalla (1208-1223) was succors of Ashokchalla (1160-1209).  His inscription at Kartikeyapur (Joshimath) of 1223 provides information about his characteristics and various political scenes.
                Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain
  The information about Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain of Krachalla is taken from inscription of Indradev. It seems that Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain was an ambitious Katyuri youth. Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain took the advantage of defeat of Lakshamanpal Dev Katyuri and became regional chieftain of attacker Krachalla.  There is reference of Chandra Dev afterwards.

                Shri Jeehal Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

              It seems that Jeehal Dev or Jahal Dev was son of Thapuva Raut. There are mentions of Jeehal Dev on Ganai and Baijnath temple inscriptions. Ganai Gadhpati Baichhal Dev could not pacify the rebelling acts of Thapuva Raut and Jeehal Dev and Baichhal Dev had to take shelter in Sui fort.
 It is obvious that when Lakshamanpal Dev restructured his strategy and got command he might have punish Jeehal Dev.
 From 1360-1560, Kadadu, Parsi raut, Kali Raut, Bagha Raut and Anandu Raut ruled over Baijnath – Danpur.
                 Shri Jahad Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

        There were Khasa chieftains in Danpur, Seera, Sor, Askot, Ramgad-Kota, Domkot etc. It is difficult to guess about the territory of Chieftain Jahad Dev. Dr Dabral suggests that Jahad dev was chieftain of Sora region.
The following other chieftains of Sora are
1-Johad Dev
2-Kadakil
3-Kakil
4-Chanari
5-Harak
6- Arki
7-Sagti

                 Moosa Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

  It seems Moosa Dev and Moosa Saun of Kaila Dungri (folklore by Oakley and Gairola) are same. According to folklore, Moosa saun was son of Narayan and Rikhola Devi.  
     Moosaa Saun killed a crucial dacoit Panchu. Saun people came from Doti to Kali Kumaon. There is still a Saun patti in Kumaon in the name of Saun Thakur.  The thakurai or rule of Moosa Saun was in Kali Kumaon. However, it is difficult to know exactness about Moosa Dev Saun. Chim, Kishan and Maid Saun etc were his successors in Saun Patti. The ruins of Saunkot fort are still there in Kaila Dhunga.

 Shri Aniladitya Raut or Rawut a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

 In thirteen century, there were two Raut –Thakurai in east manasbhumi or Kumaon- Seera (Didihat) and Domkot. It is evident that in 1229, Niranjan dev dismissed Raut chieftains and appointed his prince Dhirmall as chieftain. In 1581 Purushottam Pant captured the capital of Harimall Katyuri.
 The inscription of Krachalla describes the chieftain as Adhi/Aghi. By this method, many historians suggest that Adhi/Aghi was Aniladitya Raut.
From 1223- 1279 three kings or chieftains ruled on Seera-Adhi raut, Bhishma Raut and Bhakti Raut.  Dhirmall took over rule from Bhakti raut. It means Adhi raut was contemporary of   Aniladitya Dev Raut.
  Seera was at strategic place and there were twocapitals of Seera –Didihat and Batyuli (Thal).

            Khasa Raut chieftains of Seera (1223-1279)

 1-Adhi or Aniladitya Raut
2-Bhishma Raut
3- Bhakti raut

            Mall or Katyuri Kunwar Mall Rulers of Seera from 1279-1410

1-Dhirmall
2-Jagti Malla
3-Kura Mall
4-Ripu Mall first
5- Bhupati Mall
6- Bharti Mall
7-Dat mall
8-Anand mall
9- Raj mall
10- Kalyan mall
11-Jurwan mall
12-Arjun Malla
 The inscriptions of following Mall rulers are available
Name ------------------------------------------------Approximate Period
13- Ripu Mall Second --------------------------1410-1420
14-Bali Narayan Mall-----------------------------1420-1430
15-Anand Mall -------------------------------------1430-1440
16-Sansar Mall --------------------------------1440-1443
17-Kalyan Mall second -----------------------1443-1453
21- Nag Mall -------------------------------------1453-1461
 The Baseda Rajput Dungar from Doti killed Nag mall in 1461 and became ruler of Seera
                            Basera kings of Seera from 1461-1520
1-Dungar
2-Madan
3-Raising
Then again Mall Rainka Raym Mall captured Seera rule in 1520

Rainka was title for Mall given by Katyuri kings and Mall were Katyuri.
               Mall Rainka of Seera from 1520-1581
1-Ray Mall Rainka------------1520-1540
2-Shobha Mall Rainka -----------1540-1560
3-Hari Mall Rainka -------------1560-1581
 King Rudra Chandra captured Seera kingdom from Hari Mall.
The region under seera were Askot, Darrma, Johar .

                   Chieftains of Gangoli
 Krachalla did not appoint any chieftains for Gangoli. The chieftain of Katyuri king was appointed as chieftain by Krachalla (1208-1223).

            Katyuri kings of Gangoli from 1250-1310

 The chieftains of Ganoli were from Katyuri family.
Ram Chandra Dev – In 1264,Ram Chandra Dev built a Janhvi water reservoir (Naula) and Templein in Gangolihat.

Hammeer Dev- Two inscriptions of Hammeer Dev are available. The inscriptions suggest there were 6-7 kings of Gangoli from 1250-1350. There are Lingrajdev, Dharaldei names on inscriptions of Hammerdev.
                 Khasa Rule over Gangoli (1370-1420)

The Khasa kings ruled over Gangoli from 1370-1420. There was mess and cruelty in the time period from 1350-1420 in Gangoli.

                Rule of Manikoti Chand on Gangoli

 A Mankoti army man from Doti captured Gangoli administration from Khasa king. They used to have name ending Chand. However, there was no relation of Manikoti Chand with Chand of Kali Kumaon ruler.  
   The inscriptions provide following Manikoti Chand rulers of Gangoli from 1610
1-Initiator of Manikoti dynasty over Gangoli
2-Karam Chand
3-Shital Chand
4-Brahm Chand
5-Hingul Chand
6-Punip Chand
7-Ani Chand
8-Narayan Chand
9-Unknown
10- Prithvi Chand
  Upreti the prime minster killed Karam Chand by deceptive method while Karam Chand was on hunting. The queen took help of Pant. Pant helped the queen and crowned Shital Chand as king of Gangoli. From that period there were two power centers –Upreti and Pant in Gangoli.
 In 1563, Narayn chand had to accept the over rule of Kalyan Chand the king of Kali Kumaon.
Prithvi Chand respected and donated scholars. He was ruler till 1610 or later stage up to 1620. In 1620, The Kali Kumaoni king Lakshman Chand took over Gangoli directly under his rule.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10 , Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52  
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -142
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)

Notes on Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Domkot of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Gangoli of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Seera of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Saun Patti of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Seerakot of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan , Uttarakhand Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Kumaoni Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context North Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Asian  Himalayan Middle Age History;