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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Defining Folk Dramas/plays in Context Garhwali, Himalayan Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -1

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

               Garhwal is the region comprising Dehradun, Uttarkashi, Tehri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Chamoli Garhwal and Pauri Garhwal, Haridwar districts of Uttarakhand state of North India. The Garhwalis speak Garhwali language. The Garhwalis are scattered all over the world. Garhwal had very long and old history. Therefore there is long history of folk literature in Garhwali language.
                   Each region has its own folk dramas and has specific characteristics of folk dramas too. Garhwali language or Garhwali people have tradition of playing folk dramas from the time human societies came in Garhwal.
 Let us examine folk drama definitions.
                Bharat Muni the creator of Bharat Natya Shastram defines dram as visual poetry. He did not define folk drama separately. From Bharat Muni angle folk drama is visual poetry performed in folk actions.
      According to ancient Sanskrit drama specialist Acharya Abhinavgupt Pad Natya or drama is derived from Nat where the performers leave their own characteristics and acquire the characteristics of dram characters thus making it different ‘Rup or Form’.
              Bharat Muni insisted on creation of rapture in drama performance. Bharat definitely talked about urban drams and not folk dramas/plays.
 The Greek definition of drama is that a drama is a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform.  
  It is true that there is no definite definition of folk drama as such. Frederic Litto (1968) wrote that there does not exist a definite definition for folk drama/play.
            The radical thinker Steve Tillis defines folk drama as “Folk drama is theatrical performance within a frame work of ‘make-believe’ action shared by performers and audience, that is not fixed by authority but based on living tradition and displays lesser of greater variations in its repetition of this tradition; its performance enacted over time and space with practice of design, movement, speech and /or music ,engenders and /or enhances of communal identity among those who participate in its delivery and reception.”
 Since folk dramas/plays have tens of variants it is difficult to define folk drama/play.
 From this author angle, the Garhwali folk dramas/traditional plays are from rural Garhwal and when the common men or women leave their own characters and play performances for any act based on  either by their own created story or follow the traditional rules (specially in rituals and folk dances); and played in Garhwali language.
  In this write up the author will discusses various variants about folk plays/traditional drams of Garhwali language.
 This author will analyze the Garhwali folk dramas /traditional plays from the angle of Bharat’s Natya Shastra.


Copyright @ Bhishma Kukretibckukreti@gmail.com 26/9/2013
                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife  
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
Xx
Notes on Characteristics  and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Pauri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Chamoli Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Tehri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Tehri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Dehradun Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Haridwar Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Garhwal, Uttarakhand ; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Himalayan region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from North Indian region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from SAARC countries region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from South Asian region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Oriental region;