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Sunday, September 22, 2013

History of Vinaya Chandra family Chand kings of Kumaon, Medieval Himalaya, India

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 150

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                           Vinaya Chandra (1223-126 AD)

 The logical history suggests that Chand dynasty in Kumaon started from Vinaya Chandra, Bagh or Bhagchandra and Thorchandra. There was tendency to have names ending by Chandra/Chand in Kannauj Gaharwal vanshi kings from 1090-1226.
Around 1223-126, an ambitious, courageous solder came to Kumaon and worked under Krachalla. Later on, Thorchandra became governor or regional chieftain of Krachalla. However, the name of Thorchandra is not there in Krachalla list of Mandlik. There is name of Bagh Chandra or Bhag Chandra. It seems that Thorchand was son of Vinaya Chandra and Bagh Chandra was nephew of Vinaya Chandra. Most probably, Bag Chandra was chieftain of another territory. The folklore states that Bagchandra and Thorchandra were cosines.
                        Bagh Chandra
The inscription translation with Atkinson states that Badya Chandra was heir of Vinaya Chandra. However, there were some mistakes by Calcutta translator of inscriptions. Therefore name must be Bagh or Bhag Chandra.   It seems that Bhagchand, Bachand, Bagh Chandra or Badyachandra are names of same king.

           Resurgence of Katyuri
 Katyuri also revived their power in Kumaon and Doti Nepal after death of Krachalla.

              Thorchandra (1226-1233 AD) and Bagh Chandra (1223-1233)
  Vinaya Chandra expired in 1226. His son Thorchandra was crowned on Talladesh-Mandal in 1226.Bhagchandra was ruler of Malldesh (Bhabar). There was amicable relationship between two cosines.  
 These Chand rulers were called now ‘raja’. These rulers were cruel and they increased taxes on the subject.
 It seems that the Chand rulers had Muslim Pathan soldiers and soldiers from plains too. There was influx of Hindu soldiers by profession from plains to take shelter in hills. The Chand rulers took them into their army and started ignoring indigenous force.

                          

                   Rule of Outsiders
                   The Singh rulers (Jay Singh and Khadak singh of Kali Kumaon) were outsiders as Chand rulers. Singh rulers did not provide due regards to Katyuri rulers, khasa rulers and local people. Singh and Chand rulers became friends against local rulers (Katyuri and Khasa).
Battle of Javadi Sera
  Since, Baghchandra could get soldiers from plains (both Muslim and Hindu), Thorchand and Baghchand started fighting with neighboring rulers. In a couple of cases, they got success.  Encouraged by primary success, Thorchand asked Brahmadev Katyuri the ruler of Sui (from Baicchaldev Katyuri family tree) to marry his daughter with him/ with Thorchand. Brahmadev Katyuri refused to marry his daughter with Thorchand. Thaorchandra-Baghchandra campaigned with the aid of Muslim and non Kumaoni soldiers for attacking Brahmdev Katyuri.
At Javadi sera, Khadagsingh and Thorchand camped for battling with Katyuri.
 Brahmadev and Dhamdev Katyuri were ready for such attacks from Chand rulers. The indigenous ruler Hyunraj and his brothers were with Katyuri Brahmadev.   Brahmadev and Dhamdev stopped the army of Thorchand-Baghchand at Javadi sera. Katyuri fought with power.
  It is said that Hyunraj beheaded Thorchand and Baghchndra and donated their heads to their Kuldevi Jhali-Mali temple.
            After Javadi Sera battle, there is no mention of Singh ruler either in history or in folklore.
The Chand family and supporters flee from hills to Bhabhar plains. Hyuraj raut raja captured Champwatkot that was under Singh family.
               Brothers of Thorchand –Bhirchand, Tarachand and Nirmalchand lured Belwals the Kulpurohit of Mahra (Hyunraj) ruler.  Belwals and Thorchand brothers strategized a conspiracy to kill Hyunraj Mahar or Raut Raja. Hyunraj came to know the conspiracy. Hyunraj killed all Belwals involved in conspiracy and burnt their hoses. The Belwal widows took poison with milk an died.
         It is believed that there was another battle in Javadi Sera in 1233AD.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -151
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Doti, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Himalaya; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, North India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, SAARC Countries region; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, South Asia ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Oriental Continent;