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Thursday, November 14, 2013

History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 188

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                        Order of Badshah Shah Jahan for Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra

                When Shah Jahan got information about arrival of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra in Delhi, Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan sent an order (Farman) and Ratnajadit Khilat (robe of  honor with attached by gems) .  Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan ordered Kumaon King to attack on Garhwal Kingdom.
                  Till that time, Mogul army was failed to enter into inner hill regions of Garhwal Kingdom. When Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan ordered the time was not suitable for attacking Garhwal Kingdom due to season. Therefore, as per advice of Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan, Kumaon Jameedar (as per Mogul historian) or King postponed attack on Garhwal.

                Management of the Dehradun Garhwal territory won by Mogul Emperor
                  Mogul Empire Shah Jahan was anxious to extend his suzerainty to Garhwal. According to eminent historian WE Begley, Mogul Empire Shah Jahan wanted this territory specially Doon Valley (Dehradun) to protect his new palaces and summer capital being constructed in Shivalik hill region near Faizabad town 40kilometer north to Saharanpur.
         Mogul army won Dehradun of Garhwal easily. The annual income of Doon (Dehradun) valley was one lakh rupees on that time.  Dedh Hajari Mansabdar of Mogul empire Chaturbhuj Chauhan was anxious to rule over Doon valley (Dehradun). Chaturbhuj Chauhan was deputy of commander Khan in Doon valley attack. As per advice of Shah Jahan, Khallilu Khan appointed Chaturbhuj Chauhan as military Governor of newly won Doon valley (Dehradun).
        Khallilu Khan appointed Raja Nagardas the Jagirdar or king of Haridwar as Military Governor of quenqured   some region of Ganga bank region of Udaipur Patti of Pauri Garhwal as Chandighat (present Lakshman Jhula), Swargashram. Chandighat of Haridwar.
           Mogul Empire was happy to win strategic territory Doon (Dehradun) valley. He gifted Mal or Bhabhar and Tarai regions to Kumaon Jameendar Baj Bahadur Chandra.

             Attack of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chandra on Garhwal kingdom
                 In rainy season of 1655, the attack plan on Garhwal was postponed. However, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand was free to attack on Garhwal kingdom.
                  Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand reached Almora with order and Khilat (a robe of honor) from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan.  Baj Bahadur planned to attack on Garhwal kingdom with two side attacks.
           One army started attacking Garhwal through Pindar valley, Kumaon army won Pindar valley and reached to Badhan territory of Garhwal.  The second Kumaon army attacked Garhwal Kingdom through Lohaba. It was trouble to lose Shrinagar capital for Garhwal King. There were attacks on Garhwal from four sides. Mogul army was in Doon valley (Southwest Garhwal) and Bhabhar (plains of South Garhwal) and Kumaon armies were attacking on two sides of North East Garhwal.  It was difficult for Garhwal king to defend his territory.  Garhwal was surrounded by enemies from for directions. Garhwal King sent message to Mogul Empire Shah Jahan for accepting Mogul supremacy.

                    Reward to Baj Bahadur Chand from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan
            There were strong talks for alliance between Mogul and Garhwal kingdom The Prince Dara Shikoh and princess Jahanara were in favor of Garhwal King.
                   On 3rd April 1656, Baj Bahadur Chand visited Mogul Empire Shah Jahan court with gifts. The detail of gifts is already provided in last chapter.
                Mogul Empire Shah Jahan was not now capturing Garhwal Kingdom. Therefore he wanted Baj Bahadur Chandra be happy. Mogul Empire Shahjahan honored by title ‘Bahadur’. Now, Baja was allowed to play music ‘Nakkara’ while coming and going to Mogul court.
            Baj Bahadur was not happy by artificial honor by Mogul Empire Shah Jahan. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand requested for getting Chaurasi Mal (Plains of Kumaon) and help from Mogul commander to get rid of Katehar looters from Bhabhar. Mogul Empire Shah Jahan accepted the request of Kumaon Jameendar (King) and allowed Chaurasi Mal to Kumaon Jameendar. This Mal or region was once, under Kumaon kingdom. Mogul Empire Shah Jahan ordered his Sambhal commanders to help Kumaon Jameendar (King)in getting rid of Katehar looters from Tarai-Bhabhar. Subedar Rustam Khan compelled Katehar looters to run away from Tarai-Bhabhar region of Kumaon. The Mogul court order (Farman) refers Baj Bahadur as Kumaon Jameendar and not Kumaon Raja.
                                       Establishing Bajpur Town
              After getting Chaurasi Mal as gift from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan, Baj Bahadur Chandra established a new city Bajpur in Tarai region. He appointed court employs in Bajpur.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 14/11/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -189  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)


Notes on Oriental History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; South Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Indian subcontinent History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Indian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; North Indian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Himalayan History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Central Himalayan History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Uttrakhand History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Kumaon History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Pindar valley of Garhwal Kingdom; South Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Badhan region of Garhwal Kingdom;