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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, November 25, 2013

Foolish /Mad Kumaon King Devi Chandra

History of North Indian, Himalayan Foolish /Mad Kumaon King Devi Chandra

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 195

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

 Ruling Period of Himalayan, North Indian Kumaon King Devi Chand /Chandra- 1720-1760
Contemporary Garhwal King – Pradip Shah 1717-1772
Contemporary Delhi Mogul Empowers- Muhammad Shah -1719-1748

               Attack on Garhwal Kingdom by Kumaon King Devi Chand
               As per his predecessor’s customs, Kumaon King attacked on Garhwal just after getting the Kumaon crown. Garhwal Army defeated Kumaon army and dispatched Kumaon army from Badhan and Lobha regions.  Garhwali army followed Kumaon army and reached to Ranchula above Baijnath temple in Kumaon. Kumaon army defeated Garhwal army.  Devi Chand tried to attack Shrinagar but failed miserably.
                   Drama of winning Shrinagar by Devi Chand
          When Devi Chandra failed in winning even a small portion of Garhwal kingdom, he created a drama. He called a hill as Shrinagar. There he put some symbols of capital. Devi Chandra attacked that hill and won Shrinagar. Devi Chandra named the hill as Fatehpur (the place of winning). B.D Pande states that this hill was ‘Havalbag’

         Influence of Migrated Garhwali army brave men

             Before, Devi Chand, Pant, Pande, Joshi, Aidi and Gusain were on high positions of court and army. However, in the time of Devi Chand, the  Migrated Garhwali brave army commander Manik Gaida Bisht and his son Puranmall became powerful than Pant, Joshi, Pande etc.
                              Title of Vikaramaditya
           Devi Chandra was always anxious to hear praiseworthy words. The court employees took the advantage of self praise addiction of the king. Devi Chand tried to have a ‘New Calendar’ (New Shak) as Vikramaditya established New Year from his name. It is said that Devi Chand spent three crores rupees on establishing a ’New Calendar’ on his name. However, Dr. Dabral discard the theory of Devi Chand spending three crores though logic. Dr. Dabral estimated that Devi Chand might have spent around fifty-sixty lakhs rupees.
             Donation by Devi Chandra
              B.D. Pande called Devi Chand as ‘Pagal Raja’ (Mad King). Dr. Dabral called Devi Chand as ‘Muhammad Tuglak’ of Kumaon.
 Devi Chandra donated land and money to various religious men or temples.
1-In 1722, land to Jagishwar temple
2- In 1724, land to Narsingh temple of Tikhun
3- In 1725, land to Prem Ballabh pant
4- In 1726, land to Jageshwar temple
5-Land to Bhramari temple
            Devi Chand donated 1000 caws. He performed Tuladan ritual for six times. Devi Chand decided to pay the loans on people from state bank.  Devi Chand spent state revenue for his name.

                 Winning other Territories Planning by Devi Chand
                 Brahmins encouraged Devi Chand to create a new calendar by donations. Cunning Manik Gaida Bisht and his son Puran Mall advised Devi Chand to become Samrat (emperor).  Kumaon King Devi Chand hired Afghani Daud Khan a professional fighter and having his own private army. Prior to taking job in Kumaon Kingdom Daud Khan was serving with Mudar Shah of Katehar (Rohilkhand). Devi Chand offered Daud Khan the responsibility of defending forts of Bhabhar-Tarai.
      With the aid of Kumaon army of Bhabhar-Tarai and his own battalions, Daud Khan started looting the regions of Moradabad-Rohil regions.  Moradabad Faujdar Vajir Kamaruddin Khan Itimad Uddaula had to take action against Daud Khan and Kumaon King. The Delhi Mogul minister got information that the 20000 armed force and chivalry of Daud Khan was busy in harassing farmers and people in Moradabad and looting the travelers in the region. The Mogul minister came to know that Daud Khan and Kumaoni army had captured many villages of the region and Jameendar (landlord) accepted the rule of Daud Khan.  The Jameendar or land lords of Moradabad regions stopped paying tax to Mogul court.
  Mogul court ordered Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi the deputy of Kamaruddin to suppress the revolt of Daud Khan and Kumaon king. Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi asked the help from regional administrator of Bareli. Both representatives of Mogul empire attacked on Daud Khan and company. There was fierce battle between army of Mogul army led by Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi and Bareli representative and Daud Khan –Kumaon armed force at Rudrapur (Bhabhar-Tarai of Kumaon).  Kumaon and Daud Khan Army were defeated and ran towards river. The incident is of 1721.
         Daud Khan changed the side and became friend with Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi without informing Devi Chand. Devi Chand was also present in Rudrapur. Mogul army was ready to capture Devi Chand but patriotic Kumaon soldiers save the king. Mogul army regained power on their territory.
                            Devi Chand reached Kakaddhar. Kumaon King invited Daud Khan to take his salary and compensation.  Daud Khan reached to Kakaddhar. Devi Chand caught Daud Khan and his aides. Devi Chand ordered to kill Daud Khan and he was killed.  The army of Daud Khan took employment under Mogul army of Moradabad.  
                             History of Sabir Shah
                There is mention of Sabir Shah in ‘Tarikh-e-Hindi’ written by Rustam Ali Shahabadi in 1741-42. The book describes that a Sabir Shah reached to court of Devi Chandra in 1725. He introduced to Devi Chandra as the heir of Timor Lang. Sabir Shah requested Devi Chandra to help him in getting Delhi Kingdom.  Devi Chandra ordered his Bhabhar –Tarai army to help Sabir Khan. Devi Chand also ordered his representative to make red camp for Sahib Khan as per design of Mogul ruler. Kumaon army representative of Bhabhar –Tarai collected forty thousand of Rohila armed force.  Shekh Ajmat Ulla Khan the Mogul regional army commander of Moradabad and Sambhal attacked on Kumaon army and its hired Rohila army. Mogul army defeated Kumaon army and Rohila army in first attempt. Sabir Shah ran to east and took shelter under BurahanuLmulk. BurahanuLmulk handed over Sabir Shah to Mogul representative Murid Khan who took Sabir to Delhi. Mogul Emperor sent Sabir Shah into prison.
        Historian Atkinson reports that Mogul army did not capture Kumaon territory as Devi Chand paid tribute to local Mogul representative. Devi Chand ran to Almora.

                 Attack from Doti and Garhwal
                    When Devi Chand was busy in fighting with Mogul army, Doti King from east and Garhwal king from west attacked on Kumaon Kingdom.   Devi Chand offered friendly treaty with Doti and ordered his army to fight with Garhwal Kingdom. He himself reached to his Entertainment palace in Devipur in Bhabhar.
                                 Murder of Devi Chand
   In winter of 1726, Dev Chand was in his entertainment palace at Devipur. He used to spend winter in Devipur palace.
                    Manik Gaida Bisht and his son had a conspiracy with palace guard Ranjit to kill Devi Chand. On fifth February 1727, Manik, Puranmall and Ranjit killed Devi Chand. The trio informed people that the King died because of snake bite. His wives became Sati (dying in pyre with husband) in Almora
 Devi Chand was childless. Bisht and his son capture all power with them.  In reality the death of Devi Chand was the end of Chand dynasty.
             Devi Chand will be remembered a Mad ruler of Kumaon.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/11/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -196  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Notes on History of North Indian, Himalayan Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Devi Chand; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Dwarhat-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Bageshwar-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Almora- Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Nainital-Kumaon King Devi Chand; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Ranikhet-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Haldwani-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Udham Singh Nagar-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Bhabhar- Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Tarain-Kumaon King Devi Chand..