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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, November 18, 2013

History Events of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 191

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

 Taklakhar Conquer by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb  
                    The Kailas Mansarovar pilgrim tourists used to complaint to King Baj Bahadur that Huniya (Bhotiya or Tibetans) harassed and cruelly behaved with them in their pilgrim tour for Kailas Mansarovar. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur built the road for taking field guns in that area to settle the issue of harassment by Huniya to pilgrims. In 1670, Baj Bahadur Chand attacked Huniya region (Today’s Chinese territory of Kailas –Mansarovar region). The contemporary to Aurangzeb, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur surrounded Taklakhar fort and captured the same. There were big cracks on the fort walls due to gun attack. Till nineteenth century the fissures were visible.  
       Contemporary of Aurangzeb, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand captured fortresses of Huniya and dislocated Huniya from strategic administrations. Baj Bahadur Chandra took promises from Huniyas that they would not harass pilgrims. Huniyas used to take taxes from religious tourists too. Huniya promised to Baj Bahadur that they would not collect taxes from pilgrimages.  Baj Bahadur ordered in 1673 (copper inscription) for providing income from five villages (Panchu) to arrange free food and shelters for Mansarovar tourists.
                                Revolt by Udyot Chand  
                     Udyot Chandra was s prince. When Baj Bahadur was on campaign for winning Huniya region, Baj Bahadur came to know that his son and his opponents are planning for revolt. Therefore, Baj Bahadur Chand sent Udyot Chandra to Sayupar (cross of Saryu River) in Gangoli. Baj Bahadur sent his son Udyot Chand to rule on Gangoli, Sor, Seera, Johar, Danpur, Pargnas of Gangoli.

                 Recapturing Chiton Garh by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra

 While returning from conquer of Huniya Des (Today’s Chinese territory of Kailas Mansarovar), Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand met Doti Rainka of Sor. When Baj Bahadur Chandra reached to Brahmdev Mandi near Kali River bank, the king came to know that a ruler (by title -raja) of Chiton built a fort on hill above Brhamadev Mandi. The Chiton ruler also declared him as sovereign ruler too. Baj Bahadur attacked on the Chiton Garh and won the fort. Kumaon King hanged Chiton ruler on a tree. By hanging the Chiton ruler by Baj Bahadur, regional rulers of other regions under Kumaon Kingdom were terrified.


 Capturing Byans Kingdom by Baj Bahadur a Kumaon king contemporary to Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

                    There was rule of Chand kings on Johar and Darma (today in Pithoragarh). However, Byans region was not under Chand Kingdom and was ruled by Jumal Kings for centuries. Baj Bahadur Chand attacked on Byans and brought Byans under Chand kingdom.
               Byans was also on the border of Huniya Des. As Baj Bahadur came to alliance with Huniya of Kailas, he applied same alliance treaty with Huniya of bordering Byans. The traders of Kumaon exporting to Huniya Des would give tax (surti  kar) to Huniya des. But the tax on gold dust, salt, musk would be given to Kumaon court. In 1670, Baj Bahadur Chand audited the revenue of Askot ruled by Rajvar under Kumaon kingdom.
          Looting in Nagina
                 Atkinson wrote that in 1672, King Baj Bahadur Chandra looted Nagina of Bijnour district. However, the logic does not permit to accept that Baj Bahadur would have attacked on angina. Bijnour was under Mogul Rule. Therefore, it was not possible for Baj Bahadur to attack on Mogul territory.

 Donation and Religious Deeds by Baj Bahadur Chand a Kumaon king contemporary to Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

              Baj Bahadur was influenced by impressed by Mogul culture and appointed many Muslim court employees.  However, he believed devotedly to Hindu religion.
                    Kumaon king performed many religious rituals. Baj Bahadur Chandra offered lands to Baleshwar temple (1664); Bridh Kedar temple (1666); Jageshwar temple (1670); Bageshwar temple (1671).
              Baj Bahadur Chand offered copper plates to Jageshwar temple roof. Baj Bahadur built numbers of water reservoirs (Naule).
               Baj Bahadur Chand offered lands to Kamal joshi, Krishna Nand Joshi and Kulomani Pande.
        Baj Bahadur Chandra built temples in Bhimtal and Pinnath.
         The King did not sign the copper inscriptions but he carved Katar (a type of sword) symbol as Baj Bahadur. Baj Bahadur is also called ‘Katardar’ king.  

             Manga Kar or Manga tax
   Due to disputes with Garhwal king, fear of snatching his kingdom by Mogul Empire, appointing Muslim employees,; using new Islamic cultural symbols in his palace; attacks on Huniya des and various other aspects as religious rituals, there was additional expenditure burden on state financial position.  Baj Bahadur created a new tax called Manga Tax. Manga tax was two rupees per family.

                                   Honors to Scholars
                     Baj Bahadur used to offer shelters to astrologers and other scholars. Hiramani Joshi of Mala village, Ramapati of Sarp village, Manorath Joshi of Mena village were chief astrologers in his court. These astrologers wrote Panchang and a couple of astrology books. A Mahrashtriyan Brahmin Pundit Anant Dev wrote ‘Smriritkaustubh’ book. There are Sanskrit scripts in a couple of copper inscriptions of Baj Bahadur Chand.

                        Administrative Officers of Baj Bahadur Chand

       The Joshis of Jhinjhad were on top posts. Chaudhri, Sahu and Ratgali used to look after tax collection and food stocks. Chaudhri, Sahu and Ratgali people used to pay tribute (Ghoos) to Joshis.
            Narotam Joshi, Bhavdev Joshi and Sudarshan Upreti were ministers in Baj Bahadur court. Rajguru Pande was Court Guru and Rudradev Pande was court Pundit or Purohit. In 1648, Lakshmichan was Rajguru.
   Vishwarup Pande, Vinayak Adhikari, Vikrmark Gusain, Pratapaditya Gusain, Arjun Singh Gusain were army commanders and cabinet ministers.


                              Evil some and Sinful deeds by Baj Bahadur Chandra

               At the end of his life Baj Bahadur started feeling of conspiracy against him from all his employees including prince. He did not trust on his own employees.  There was a Dalakoti Brahmin from Chaugarkha in his court. He told to king that Kumaoni people are deceptive.
 There is Folklore that as per notorious advice of Dalakoti, King Baj Bahadur killed hundreds of innocent employees and blinded many.   Baj Bahadur came to know about deceptive advice by Dalakoti Brahmin. Baj Bahadur punished Dalakoti.
               Baj Bahadur offered financial helps to affected people. However, the people did not trust on the king. In his old age, Baj Bahadur became eccentric and used to order without any second consideration.

                        Death of Baj Bahadur Chandra
 In his old age, Baj Bahadur started mistrusting on his employees including his sons.  Baj Bahadur Chand felt that his employees would kill him. He dismissed old employees. Baj Bahadur died in 1678. Nobody was there to look after him properly at his death time.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 19/11/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -192  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History Events of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Attack on Garhwal kingdom by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Attack on Huniya Des by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of recapturing Chiton Garh by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of winning Byans territory by  Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of religious works and rituals by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of new Tax system by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Sinful and oppressing deeds by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Mistrusting on employees by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Administration of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Army commanders of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb;