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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Sunday, November 17, 2013

General History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 189

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                   Medani Shah in Shah Jahan Court

                  At the time of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chand Garhwal kingdom faced attack from all four sides. In north, Tibet kingdom had been problematic for boundary disputes for centuries. In East, Baj Bahadur was ready attacking Garhwal to help Mogul Empire. From west Sirmaur Kingdom was to attack Garhwal again to help Mogul.  Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan already captured Doon valley of Garhwal Kingdom.  It was necessary for Garhwal king Prithvi Pati Shah to have cordial relationship with Mogul Empire.
                Prithvi Pati created good relation with Mogul prince Dara Shikoh. Prithvi Pati Shah sent his son prince Medani Shah to Mogul court. Medani Shah handed over gifts of one hundred gold coins to Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan on his father’s behalf.  Mogul Emperor provided gifts of honor (khilat), Bajuband, and a Kipchak horse.
   According to Maularam, Shah Jahan gave one elephant and eleven horses to Medani Shah too. In later stage, Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan returned Doon valley and Bhabhar Garhwal to Garhwal King.
    Honor to Tiwari by Baj Bahadur Chandra
               Tiwari family took care of   Baj Bahadur in childhood and Kumaon Trimall Chandra adopted Baj and declared him as prince. Baj Bahadur ascended on crown in 1638.  
         Studying the copper inscriptions of 1659, 1662, 1670, it is clear that Kumaon or Manas Bhumi King Baj Bahadur Chand used to help Tiwari family regularly. Kumaon King donated a couple of villages to Tiwari family. Baj Bahadur called his elder Narayan Tiwari from the Tiwari family Chausar village and asked his desire. Tiwari requested same Brahminical position for Tiwari as of Pande and Pant castes.  From Baj Bahadur Chandra period, Tiwari caste got same position as High class Brahmin (Kulin Brahmin or Badi Dhoti Brahmin) as Pande, Pant used to get.
                       Narayan Tiwari built a Shiva temple in Hariya Dungari. The expenditure was born by Baj Bahadur Chandra. Tiwari built a water reservoir near Chausar village.

                                                 Tarai Management
        Baj Bahadur Chandra chalked out a plan to manage Tarai region /plains of kingdom.
 There were two seasonal head quarters of Kingdom officials for managing Tarai Kumaon. The winter head quarter was in Bajpur. The summer and rainy season head quarters were in Badakhedi and Kota in Shivalik hills.  Baitan reported runs of houses and gardens in Badakhedi and Kota. It means the season in Tarai was not unhealthy in Tarai as was in nineteenth century.
                                Court of Baj Bahadur Chandra on Mogul Style
                    Baj Bahadur Chandra spent his childhood in poverty and scarcity. However, after getting declared prince of Kumaon he had chance to spend lavish life. The life style of his friend Mogul army commander Khalilullakhan impressed Kumaon King Baj Bahadur. Baj Bahadur started bringing Mogul culture to Kumaon court. From Kumaon court the Mogul culture spread to rural Kumaon.  Baj Bahadur brought and appointed many Muslim servants from Delhi and Sambhal or Moradabad regions with him.  A few Muslim music players used to play drums and tambourines in his court. The Muslim Chobdar used to walk before Baj Bahadur with silver stick.  Maulabaksh was in charge of Muslim employees in Kumaon court.  
        Maulabaksh brought Muslim Hediya community and established them in Tarai region of Kumaon for protection. The descents of these Hediya people used to loot people in nineteenth and twentieth century.
   Baj Bahadur appointed a Halwai (sweetmeat maker) for palace kitchen. The Management of Palace kitchen was on the rules laid by Shakti Gusain.  Baj Bahadur added new villages for getting expenses for place kitchen. These villages were called ‘Pal’ villages.
 There were expenses on arms and ammunition as gun powder. For gun and gun powder expenses the income from many villages were reserved. These villages were called ‘Darkotiya (dar means gun powder and Kot means fort), ‘Silkaniya’. The villages were called ‘Mahrudi’ whose villagers were to carry guns and gun powder

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 17/11/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -190  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)