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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

History of Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chandra:

History of Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 192

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

 Time Period of Kumaon King Udyot Chandra -1678-1698
Inscriptions of Kumaon king -1678,1682,1684,1689,1690,1691,1692,1693,1695,1697,1698 AD
Contemporary Neighboring Kings of Kumaon King Udyot Chand
Shrinagar Garhwal King Fateshah -1664-1716
Delhi Mogul Emperor – Aurangzeb
                      Udyot Chandra was elder son of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chandra. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur had three sons –Udyot Chandra, Pahad Singh Gusain and third son who became Sanyasi and ran away.
                    Baj Bahadur transferred his son Udyot Chandra to Gangoli from Almora believing that Udyot Chandra was to revolt against him. At the time of death of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur in 1678, Udyot Chandra was in Gangoli and Udyot Chandra was coroneted without any resistance.
            The court employees, subjects and learned people were happy on death of Baj Bahadur.
Just after getting kingdom, Kumaon King Udyot Chandra gifted land to his supporter Devi Datt Pathak.

                              Attack on Garhwal Kingdom by Udyot Chandra

                         Politically, Garhwal and Kumaon Kingdoms were under Mogul rule but they were free to rule their territories.
                     In 1678, Kumaon King Udyot Chandra attacked to Garhwal kingdom and king and his army commander Maisi Sahu were leading Kumaon army. Kumaon Kingdom Army commander Maisi Sahu attacked on Garhwal from Badhan border. Garhwal Kingdom army killed Maisi Sahu. Kumaon king and his army ran away to their capital Almora.
 On that period, the culture was that the defeated king had to attack again. Kumaon king Udyot Chandra attacked again on Garhwal through Ganai region in 1679. Kumaon King captured Lohaba, Chandpur regions of Garhwal and looted the region and ran away. Now the turn was for Garhwal king to attack on Kumaon Kingdom.
 Garhwal King did war treaty with Doti Katyuri kingdom (now, in Nepal). In 1680, Doti king attacked to Kumaon from its east side and captured Champawat. From west, Garhwal king attacked on Kumaon and captured Dunagiri and Dwarhat of Kumaon. The battles were for two years. However, at the end Kumaon King was successful to get free his lost territories from Doti King and Garhwal King.
                  Kumaon king Udyot Chandra established army camps in east near kali bank in Sor, Champwat and Brahma Mandi to defend the territory.
  Kumaon King Udyot Chandra established army camps in Dunagiri and Dwarhat.

                   Religious Ritual Performances by Kumaon King Udyot Chandra

                 Udyot Chandra was very religious man. He used to perform rituals in temples and in place for keeping away the bad evils.
               Kumaon King Udyot Chandra offered land to Ramewashwr temple in 1682 and in 1684, offered land twice to Jageshwar temple.  
  Udyot Chandra had gone for Ganga Snan (bathing into Ganges) to Daranagar in 1684. While coming back from Daranagar, he came to know that Doti King attacked on Kumaon again.


                           Doti Campaign

                      Doti King Deep Sahi attacked on Kali Kumaon knowing the absence of King Udyot Chand.  Garhwal King was busy in war with Sirmaur Kingdom. In 1685, Kumaon army pushed back Doti army from kali-Kumaon. Kumaon army marched towards Doti.
  In 1685, Kumaon army entered Doti. Kumaon army captured Ajmer Garh, summer palace of Doti King and central court of Doti (Chauntara). Doti King ran to Dipali at the bank of Seti River in foothills. In 1687, Kumaon army reached to Dipali and captured the territory. Doti king ran away and took asylum at Khairagarh (a territory of Awadh king). In 1688, Udyot Chandra attacked on Khairagarh. Doti King accepted the super rule of Kumaon and agreed to pay tribute.

                              Building Temples and Ritual Performances
            When Udyot Chandra returned to his capital Almora, there was huge celebration for the win. King Udyot Chand started building new palace. Kumaon King Udyot Chand built a new pond in present palace. The Kumaon King Udyot Chand built temples in his name and on his queen’s name –Udyotchandreshwar and Tripur Sundari respectively. He had a Khavanis queen Parvati whom he loved the most. He built a temple on her name Parvateshwar temple.
                    Kumaon King donated lands for Baleshwar temple (1686); Deepchandeshwar temple (1690); Pinnath temple (1691); Bridh Jageshwar temple (1692); Kalika temple (1693), Bhauunaditya temple (1695); Rameshwar and Nagarjun temple (1697).
        Kumaon King Udyot Chandra performed Lakshdeepdan, Grihdan, Shakradhwajropan  and many more religious rituals.
 King Udyot Chand built a temple Bhard mandir for Bhut pujai and now, that temple is called Shai Bhairav temple.

                              Defeat from Doti King  

                 Dot King (now in Nepal) accepted the super rule of Kumaon and agreed upon to pay tribute. However, Doti King broke the Khairagarh treaty and stopped paying tribute to Kumaon King.
              Kumaon King Udyot Chandra attacked on Doti in 1696.  There was fierce battle between Doti army and Kumaon army at Jurail of Dandeldhura region. Doti army defeated Kumaon army. Kumaon King Udyot Chandra returned Almora for taking new armed force. Manorath Joshi and Shiromani Joshi of Jhinjhad were leading Kumaon army in Jurail (place in Doti kingdom).  Doti army killed Shiromani Joshi. Kumaon King had to call back his balance army from Jirali to Almora.
                     Mal Management

              Bhabhar and Tarai regions were important from crop fertility point of view. Kumaon King Udyot Chandra paid much attention on managing Mal (Bhabhar-Tarai).  Udyot Chand built gardens in Mal. New mango gardens were built in Kashipur and Kota.  Kumaon court officer for Mal Shrinath Adhikari established new town –Shrinathpur.
                    
                       Building works by Udyot Chand  
   Udyot Chand erected new temples and repaired various old temples. Udyot Chand erected new palace buildings. In 1689, Udyot Chand built Tallamahal and in 1692, he built Rangmahal. Udyot Chand built pond and bathroom in his palace. Udyot Chand built a hall for celebrating Dashhara festival.

                           Employees of Udyot Chand

                  The Joshis of Jhinjhad were ministers in the court of Udyot Chand. Bhav Dev Joshi was his personal secretary or Diwan.
 Prataladitya Gusain, Jasvant Singh Gusain, Arjun Singh Gusain, Pahad Singh Gusain, Sujan Singh, etc were court ministers.  There are records of officers as Rippumall, Harimall, Bhim Singh, rama Pundit, Shri Nath Adhikar.

                   Honoring scholars by King Udyot Chand  
                  Udyot Chand the Kumaon King contemporary of Aurangzeb was scholar and used to honor scholars.  Scholars from far away from other parts of India used to come in Almora for scholarly discussions.
        King Udyot Chand offered land and house to a Bhatt south Indian Brahmin.
      In 1690, Matiram poet created verses ‘Alankar Panchshika’ in praise of Prince Gyan Chand son of Udyot Chand.  Famous poet Matiram also created poems in praise of King Udyot Chand. There was Madan a poet in Udyot Chand court. Once, King Udyot Chandra was annoyed by Madan. Matiram soothed King Udyot Chand.  Udyot Chand pardoned Madan poet on advice of Matiram.

                      Death of Udyot Chand

                    Kumaon King Udyot Chandra used to honor religious saints and Mahatmas. Udyot Chand had great faith in a Mahatma Ridhisidhi Gusain who used to live in Almora. Mahatma Ridhisidhi also used to like   Udyot Chand.
  As per advice of saints, King Udyot Chandra handed over his kingdom to his son Prince Gyan Chandra and became busy in praying deities.
 Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chand died in 1698. His Khavanis wife Parvati burnt herself live with his dead body (Sati) .


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/11/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -193  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian History of Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Dwarhat-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Bageshwar-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Champawat- Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Almora-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Nainital-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Ranikhet- Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Haldwani-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb-