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Monday, November 10, 2014

History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -38 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -227     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -475 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                                    Low Density Inhabitation   
   Garhwal as today too, had 79% hilly area. There are Snow Belt and baron belt in Garhwal. Forests were there in every village area.
   The boundary areas were always baron when there were wars and conflicts between Kumaon and Garhwal or between Rohillas and Garhwal.  In south, in Bhabhar, after Rohillas invasion there was a 58 miles long and five to six miles wide strip of land under Garhwal. The Kotridun where Mavakut fort was there was baron. Once, Jaydev grew indigo in this region. Patlidun also became inhabitant less due to continuous invasion from South. Doon valley was always disturbed by the attacks of Rohillas, Gujjar, Rakhad, Sikh, Rajput and Rohillas and low density population was there in Dehradun region. Haridwar was also always effected by conflicts and low density was also there.
                                                Cities
     Garhwal had 99 % population in villages. Shrinagar was called a city. The area of Shrinagar was less than one square mile. The population of Shrinagar was around six to seven thousand only.
                 Dehradun was not city. There was big village surrounding Guru Ram Rai Darbar. In 1827, there were 518 houses and 2116 people around Guru Ram Rai Darbar.
             In 1827, in Devprayag, there was one of one and half thousand people. Haridwar was having population but not large.
                                  Bajar/Hat/Ghat or Markets

   There were small business centers in Garhwal. A few markets were Toll Tax collection centers. Following Market places were famous Toll tax centers where population was more -
Badhat  
Laldhang
Chaukighat
Lakadghat
Khohdwar  
Armound Bhotantik region following market places were there
Mana
Joshimath
Jelam
Malari or Markha
Bampa or Bhwan
Gamsali
Neeti (saunas)
Haridwar was also market place.
                         Villages
              In 1822, the population of British Garhwal (Pauri, Chamoli and Rudraprayag) was 3457.
 There were 400 villages in Dehradun in Pradyuman Shah Period. The number of villages in Tehri Garhwal and Uttarkashi would be around 1000 or so. Dr Dabral assess that there would be number of villages in Garhwal including Dehradun around 5000 or 5500 before 1805.
                        Population of a Village
  In 1796, Hardwicke described the path from Kotdwara to Shrinagar and described that there were villages having hardly six or eight huts. A village having ten huts was called big village. In Bhotantik region, villager was bigger and denser.
   In 1822, there were 3457 villages and 19302 houses (huts ,  mud houses or so)  in British Garhwal (Pauri, Chamoli and Rudraprayag). It means before Gorkhali, there were 31000 Houses in Garhwal Kingdom. Two or three families used to live together in one hut. There might be 62000 families before Gorkha period. In 1881, the average members in one family was counted 7.3.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com7/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -476 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal