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Monday, November 24, 2014

History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -54 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -243     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -491 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Garhwal had been fortunate about food materials for human beings. Baring a a couple of feminine, no history record is available that a Garhwali died due to non availability of food. On the contrary, there is an old proverb in Garhwali –
“Khaik sabi Morin, Nikhaik kwee ni mor’’
That is ‘Everybody dies by taking food and nobody dies because of hunger”.
          The following agro based items were available in hills of Garhwal and Bhabhar including Haridwar, Bijnor and Saharanpur.
                         Cereals and pseudo Cereals
- Barely, Rice, Wheat, Buckwheat, Chenopodium etc were main cereals.
Maize, Amaranth came in Garhwal after Portuguese entered into India.
                              Millets and Minor Millets
Among millets and minor millets, Barnyard millet, Finger millet, Fox tail millet, Proso Millet, Kodo and Sorghum were popular.
                                 Pulses
 Pigeon pea, Chickpea, Bhatt or Soybean, Khesari, Lentil, Horse gram (Bhabhar) were main pulses of Garhwal, Bijnor and Haridwar including Saharanpur.
         Most of beans came to Garhwal after entry of Portuguese in India.
                                  Oilseeds
 Indian mustard, Brown Mustard, Toria, Linseed, Perilla , Sesame,
Sunflower was introduced in India after Portuguese entered into India.
                                             Vegetables
 People of Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur ued to grow Okra, jackfruit (in Bhabhar), Elephant foot yam, Wax guard, Phadi Spinach, Cabbage (mostly in plains), Elephant Ear Yam, various gourds, Kakdi /cucumber, Radish (Moola and Muli), Brinjal, Carrot, etc vegetable
 Squash, Pumpkin, Potato, Sweet Potato, Tomato, pepper were introduced in Garhwal at British period.
                                     Wild Edible Vegetables
Hanw, Bankh, Kairua, Bunch-Ham, Gweeralpr Kwairyal, Kilmora or Kingoda, Semal, Ganziadi, wild Bathua,Gadpeper, Ginthi, Tarur, Linguda, Khuntda, Jhangar, Timul/Timla, Bedu, Sakina, Halang, Mushrooms, Sonjal, Padya, Jarag, Quathode, Buransh, Rugi, Bicchu Ghas or Kandali  were wild edible vegetables of Garhwalis of Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, and Saharanpur.  
 Rambans (Agave americana) was introduced after Portuguese entry only.
                            Fruits
Orange, mango, Lemon, Ber, Pomegranate, Peach, Loquat,  etc were grown in Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur.
     New world fruits as Papaya, Guava, a couple of berries species, apple etc of Europe origin were introduced just before British Raj or in British Raj.

               Wild Edible Fruits
           Bael, Malu, Bamaur, Chutar, Kingoda or Kilmora, Daya, Hisar, Karaunj, Mitha Pangar, Khadik, Jmair, Tusar, taidu,  Giwai, Bedu, Timla, Khainu, Bhekhafal, Titmar,Bhimal, Turchuk, Gophal,Akhrot, Kafal, Kurmali, Kimu, Thankal, Aonla, Chir, Paya, Jamun, Bamhalu, Darim, Ghingaru, Mole, Mehal, Buransh, Sirkuti, Imli, Phelalo, Sepla,  Kusum, Kala Hisar, Panik Brahmi, Mat Kakri, Nepala, Ami, Mijhau, Titmelwa were major wild edible fruits of Garhwal Bhabhar, Haridwar, Bijnor and Saharanpur Bhabhar.
(Reference Source included P.S.Mehta, K.S.Negi and S.N.Ojha, 2010, Native Plant genetic resources and traditional foods of Uttarakhand Himalaya.. IJNP and R)  
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com23/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -492 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of  Bijnor around  Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Saharanpur around in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;  History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Bhabhar of Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Bijnor and Saharanpur  in Pal /Shah Period