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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, December 16, 2013

Rise and Fall of Queen Shringarmanjari as Administrator in Kumaon King deep Chand Period

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                          
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 217

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

               The period of Deep Chand and later on till British came into scene, Kumaon and Garhwal witnessed many internal and external disturbances.

                Death of Elder Queen of Deep Chandra

    Deep Chand loved Dilipmanjari the elder queen very much. She did not have any child. Dilipmanjari expired before 1760AD. Deep Chand built an idol of Dilipmanjari with his own idol and established the sculptures in Jageshwar temple. The queen-king sculpture is four feet high and is witness of culture of Kumaon of that time.
  Deep Chand was always sad after death of his beloved queen.

                 Jayakrishna as Administrator


 Shiv Datt Joshi was prime minister of Kumaon Kingdom but he used to live in Kashipur for strategic purpose. His had four sons, out of four sons, three sons Jay Dev, Harinidhi and Harsh Dev had other responsibilities in Kumaon Kingdom. Jaykrishna Joshi the son of Deep Chand was given charge of Almora administration. After the death Shiv Datt Joshi, the King appointed Jayakrishna Joshi as prime minister and Mukhtar of Mall.
       Shringarmanjari was younger queen of Deep Chand and is said that she had extra marital relations with other men. She delivered a son in 1760. Therefore, Shringarmanjari became important for the kingdom. Shringarmanjari was highly ambitious. Shringarmanjari started interfering in the administration. Jayakrishna Joshi opposed her interference. Shringarmanjari asked help from Rohila commander Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Rahmat Khan had a subordinate Jodh Singh Katehar. Jodh Singh Katehar was engaged to daughter of King Deep Chandra. Jodh Singh Katehar was supporter of queen Shringarmanjari. Jodh Singh Katehar influenced Rahmat Khan to write a letter to minister Jayakrishna Joshi that he should obey the queen Shringarmanjari. Jayakrishna felt it insult and challenge from Rahmat Khan and queen. In utter frustration, capable minister Jayakrishna Joshi resigned from the ministerial post and left Almora.

                Administration of Queen Shringarmanjari


          Queen Shringarmanjari had extra marital relationship with Parma Nand Bisht. Jayakrishna left Almora without any problems for the queen.
 The queen appointed her own men for following posts –
Mohan Singh – as Bakshi or prime minister
Kishan Singh –Deewan or chief minister
Parma Nand Bisht- Mukhtar or residential representative of prime minister
Jodh Singh Katehar- Officer in charge of Bhabhar- Tarai
 Jodh Singh Katehar was son in law of queen Shringarmanjari.
The King deep Chand was helpless before his queen.
 Now, after Jayakrishna leaving Almora, the queen Shringarmanjari was super head of Kumaon Kingdom.
   Queen administrated this way for a year.
  Parma Nand Bisht the male friend of queen Shringarmanjari was against Jodh Singh Katehar. Due to high level conspiracy from Parma Nand Bisht, Mohan Singh ran away from Almora  and took shelter under Rohila in Rohilkhand. Parma Nand Bisht became Bakhsi but was unable to administrate well. Bisht called Jayakrishna Joshi and Harshdev Joshi and offered them Diwan and Bakshi.
               Eight months after Joshi brothers becoming ministers, Mohan Singh reached a Rohila Ruler of Bisauli Nabab Dundikhan. Nabab Dundi Khan had dream to capture Bhabhar and Tarai of Kumaon. Dundi Khan was also jealous for another Rohila commander and ruler Rahmat Khan Influence on Kumaon. Mohan Singh reached to Almora without any resistance with his own army and army of Nabab Dundikhan.
 Mohan Singh captured the queen Shringarmanjari and King deep Chand and put them in house arrest.
Mohan Singh became Bakshi of Kumaon. Mohan Singh killed his enemy Parma Nand Bisht. Nobody could do against Mohan Singh.
 Mohan Singh came to know that queen Shringarmanjari was making strategy to oust him from the Kingdom. Mohan Singh entered into queen house and threw the queen Shringarmanjari out of palace through window. She died instantly. The king Deep Chand and other administrators were helpless.
 Chief Minister Kishan Singh ran away from Almora.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 15/12/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
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Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -218  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)