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Monday, December 16, 2013

History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kumaon King Deep Chandra

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                          
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 216

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti


                         Shiv Datt Joshi had experience of working with Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra and his son deep Chand.

                               Friendly Treaty with Nazibuddaula
                Rohila ruler Nazib Khan made disturbance in Kumaon Bhabhar. However, before, 3rd battle of Panipat, Shiv Datt Joshi and Nazib came together for a friendly treaty.  Nazib had go for battle to take side of Ahmad Abdali.  Kumaon Prime minster sent his son Harsh Dev Joshi with five hundred soldiers to Patthar Garh fort (Nazibabad) of Nazib for protection of family members of Nazib and his wealth.
            Harsh Dev Joshi was there in Patthar Garh till Nazib returned from Panipat battle. Therefore, Maratha could not harm fort of Nazib.
       Shiv Datt Joshi promised Nazib Khan that Kumaon kingdom would provide shelter in case of Maratha wins in Panipat battle.

                      Conflicts among Joshi

  Hari ram Joshi returned from Panipat battle. After his return, the conflict between him and Shiv Datt Joshi started as in past.
  Initially Jay Krishna Joshi the son of Shiv Datt Joshi and Jay Ram the son of Hari Ram Joshi fought with weapons. Later on there had been seven fights took place between Shiv Datt Joshi and Hari Ram Joshi. The seventh fight took place at Bans ki Sera at the confluence of Gagas River and Doasandhgad, Jay Ram was killed with his 1500 soldiers.  Hari ram came to meet Shiv Datt Joshi. Rahmat Khan Rohila arbitrated between Shiv Datt Joshi and Hari ram Joshi. Hari ram Joshi had to promise in writing that he would obey Shiv Datt Joshi.    

                           Suppression of Fadtyal Group
                      After suppression of revolt from Hari ram Joshi family, the trouble started from Fadtyal group of Kali Kumaon for Shiv Datt Joshi. A local old village chief Raymall of Chauki village sent a letter to his friend in Kashipur. Raymall promised to his friend that in case he was ready to conspire against Shiv Datt Joshi, the Fadtyal group of Kali Kumaon would help. Shiv Datt got the letter.
   Shiv Datt reached to Almora to suppress Fadtyal group revolt. There, Shiv Datt Joshi came to know that Joshi of Danya are also playing role in another conspiracy. Shiv Datt Joshi caught the rebellion group leaders (Joshi from Danya).  Shiv Datt Joshi wanted to terrorize his enemies. He put the rebellions into rags and threw them alive into Saryu River at Balighat. Many other people became enemy of Shiv Datt Joshi by that inhuman punishment.
           Shiv Datt Joshi repented his acts and pardons other prisoners. He returned their lands. Raymall ran to Doti. The King awarded Shiv Datt Joshi lands and gifts and titles.

                        Murder of Shiv Datt Joshi
       Shiv Datt Joshi got information that Nagarkotiya and contractual soldiers are involved in movement for increasing their salaries. Fadtyal group insinuated these soldiers for asking more salaried.
    Shiv Datt Joshi rushed to Kashipur.  Shiv Datt Joshi called the soldiers and their leaders for meeting. However, before the meeting, other soldiers killed Shiv Datt Joshi, his two sons Jay dev Joshi and Hari Nidhi Joshi. His third son Harsh Dev Joshi escaped from the incident place.
              The soldiers looted the wealth, titles, inscriptions and other records of late Shiv Datt Joshi  

  Since from the time of Doti Kalyan Chandra, there were disturbances in Kumaon Kingdom it was necessary for Shiv Datt Joshi to take hard and harsh decisions. Many administrators were unhappy over those decisions and wanted to take revenge against Shiv Datt Joshi. Shiv Datt Joshi protected Kumaon by his war management skill and diplomatic skills. However, the rebellions killed Shiv Datt Joshi on 11th December 1764 in Kashipur. Hari Ram Joshi also died after some time. From that day, Tarai-Bhabhar was separated from Kumaon.
              The death of Shiv Datt Joshi also was the beginning of ending of Chand dynasty from Kumaon forever.
 After the death of Shiv Datt Joshi, Kumaon witnessed fierce inner fights among administrators and selfish people.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/12/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -217  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Pithoragarh Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Bageshwar Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Champawat Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Almora Kumaon King Deep Chandra;  History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Dwarhat Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Nainital Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kashipur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Jaspur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Tanakpur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Deep Chandra;