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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, December 16, 2013

History of Initial Stage of Fall of Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom

 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                          
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 218

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                       Resurgence of Joshi in Almora

                Mohan Singh became whole and sole of Kumaon Kingdom after killing queen Shringarmajari with the help of a Rohila commander Dundikhan. Hafiz Rahmat Khan was not pleased to see downfall of his fried King deep Chandra. Rahmat Khan called the sons of Shiv Datt Joshi and asked them to try to regain power.
                  The chief minister Kishan Singh was in exile. He helped Joshi brothers.  Joshi brothers appointed professional soldiers (whose earning was dependent on providing army service to anybody).  Joshi brothers attacked on Kumaon with their newly collected army. Joshi brothers defeated Mohan Singh and Mohan Singh ran away. Shiromani Das of Bajpur helped Joshi brothers.
     Deep Chand was pleased by the new situation. Deep Chand wanted to appoint Jayakrishna as Deewan and Harshdev Joshi as Bakshi of Kumaon Kingdom and Kishan Singh as Mukhtyar. However, Jayakrishna was not ready to work under Kishan Singh.  Kishan Singh was ‘Chukundaru’ brother of deep Chand.
Therefore, deep Chandra appointed the following administrators as-
Harsh Dev Joshi- Deewan and Bakshi
Kishan Singh –Mukhtyar
Chupwa Bisht –Nayab
Lakshmipati Joshi –Nayab
Hakim of Kashipur- Shiromani Das
Manorath Joshi (son of Hari ram Joshi) –Rudrapur in carge
 The King awarded Shiromani das with eight villages and land of Mohan Singh.
 The new administrators corrected the administration. Shiromani Das died and his son Nand Ram was appointed as Hakim of Kashipur. Nandram and his brother Hargovind were ambcious. On that period, most of administrators became over ambitious to collect wealth and rewards.
   Nandram and Hargovind called professional soldiers from Nagarkot, Kangda Himachalpradesh.on that time professional solders used to roam here and there as labor roams today in search of job.
     Many influential people were unhappy over the behavior of Kishan Singh. Mohan Singh was in Awadh under the shelter of Awadh Nabab. He sent message to Joshi brothers through Awadh Nabab for permission to come to Almora. Harshdev Joshi denied permission for Mohan Singh entering in Kumaon diplomatically. However, Jaykrishna permitted Mohan Singh to come Almora.

               Mohan Singh in Almora
  
 Mohan Singh met Nandram in Kashipur while coming from Awadh to Almora. Mohan Singh promised to Nand Ram that after becoming the Kumaon King Mohan Singh Would provide Nand Ram the rule of Bhabhar –Tarai as sovereign country.
  Mohan Singh took administration as soon as he reached to Almora. Joshi brother were under him and Mohan Singh showed that he was well wisher of Joshi brothers.
    One day, before Mohan Singh, it was discussed that since Nand Ram was trying to become free ruler of Tarai-Bhabhar the Kingdom should bring the rule under Kumaon Kingdom from Nandram. Mohan Singh showed pleasure on that planning. However, Mohan Singh sent secret message to Nand Ram about attack from Kumaon Kingdom on him.
  Jaykrishna Joshi marched towards Tarai-Bhabhar with force to capture Tarai-Bhabhar. When Jaykrishna reached to Halduva in Bhabhar the army of Nandram was there to fight. Nandram’s army defeated the army of Jayakrishna. The army of Nandram killed Kishan Singh too.
Jaykrishna fled to Bareli
  Harshdev Joshi fled to Pali. Now, the King Deep Chand was totally helpless.

              Murder of Deep Chand  
   Mohan Singh caught Deep Chand and his sons Uday Chandra and Sujan Singh Gusain. Mohan Singh sent them in Seerakot prison. In 1777, Mohan Singh killed them in prison through indirect method or directly.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/12/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -219  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Champawat Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Bageshwar Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Almora Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Nainital Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Ranikhet Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, central Himalaya; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, north India; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, South Asia;