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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, December 13, 2013

History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers in 3rd Panipat Battle

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                          
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 215

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                          Importance of Copper Inscription by Deep Chand to Shiv Datt Joshi

                 Kumaon King Deep Chandra offered a copper inscription to his mentor and able administrator Shiv Datt Joshi in 1755. The said inscription is very valuable for knowing the history of Kumaon and Garhwal of eighteenth century.
                     Nazib Khan in Kota Doon

            Nazib Khan belonged to Roha of Afghanistan. Nazib Khan came to today’s Indian Territory with his son for earning. Initially, he worked with Muhammad Bangas and Vazir Gazi Uddin. Later on, he joined Al Muhammad Khan who captured Kumaon for certain time. Ali Muhammad had to leave Kumaon Tarai-Bhabhar zone due to intervene of Delhi Mogul Emperor. Ali Muhammad watched the capability of Nazib Khan and awarded him a Jagir (rule over a portion of land). When Ali Mohammad had to flee from Kumaon; Nazib collected migrated Afghan soldiers. Nazib helped Ahmad Khan Bangas in Chilkiya or Laldhang battle. Nazib captured the partial territory of Bijnour and Saharanpur. Nazib also captured Bhabhar of Kumaon from Kali River to Garhwal Doon Bhabhar till Yamuna River.
                   In 1753, Nazib helped Delhi Mogul Emperor by sending fifteen thousand soldiers to Delhi for suppressing the revolt of Awadh Nabab Safdar Jung. Delhi Mogul Emperor awarded Nazib to collect tax of Doab between Ganga and Yamuna Rivers.
            He captured the administration of western Rohilkhand. Nazib Khan also captured territory of Meerut and Saharanpur. Delhi court awarded him the title as ‘Nazibuddaula’. Nazib Khan was well aware about hills of Kumaon and Garhwal. He was anxious to  establish his capital in foot hills. In 1755, he started building the fort in Pathargarh (near toady’s Nazibabad). Some time back of 1755, Nazib Khan captured Kota Doon of Kumaon but Shiv Datt Joshi compelled Nzaib Khan to run away from Kota –Doon. He established the capital as Nazibabad or where Nazib stays.
   Nazib Khan liked Kota Don more in comparison to Dehradun.  However, it is also a fact that Shiv Datt Joshi had cordial relation with Nazib Khan.

                   Kumaon Kingdom Soldiers in Panipat

        In mid of eighteenth century, the Mogul Empire was in decline. Maratha and Ahmmad Shah Abdali were trying to capture North Indian territories. In 1759, Maratha captured Punjab territory of Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Abdali capture Punjab from Mogul Empire. In 1760, Ahmmad Shah Abdali attacked on India to recapture Punjab from Maratha. Nazib Khan or Nazibudduala was with Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Both wanted to establish an Afghan-Pathan Empire in India and wanted to get rid of Shiya rulers. Ahmmad Shah Abdali and Nazib Khan were now to crash down   Martha a newly powerful force emerged in Indian politics.
                 Due to pursuance of Nazib Khan, all Afghani warriors (Rohila) and Awadh Nabab Shuza-ud-Daula helped Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Maratha tried to inspire Hindu Kings and to become a collective force but were unable to do so.
             In the mean time, Delhi Mogul emperor sent a letter to north Indian kings to send army to fight against Maratha. The Kumaon King (definitely by advice of Shiv Datt Joshi) sent four thousand soldiers under the capable leadership of Hari Ram Joshi and Birbal Negi to Panipat. Kumaon soldiers fought the third Panipat battle with aggression and wisely in January 1761.
    Kumaoni army was in the same camp of Rohila army under the brigade of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Kumaon soldiers were expert in throwing Hand grinned and rockets. Ahmmad Shah Abdali won the battle against Maratha.
          After the 3rd Panipat battle, Delhi Emperor wanted to meet the brave Kumaon army commanders. However, in jealousy, Rahmat Khan played the game and did not allow the meeting of Delhi Emperor and Kumaon commanders. Hafiz Rahmat Khan offered gifts to Hari ram Joshi from the side of Mogul Emperor and sent back Hari ram to Kumaon. Hafiz Rahmat Khan told a lie that Kumaon commanders and soldiers could not bear the heat of plains and they went to hills of Kumaon.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/12/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
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Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -216  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Pithoragarh in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Champawat in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Dwarhat in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Bageshwar in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Almora in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Nainital in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Bhimtal in third Panipat Battle;  History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Udham Singh Nagar in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Kashipur  in third Panipat Battle;  History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Kotadoon in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Jaspur in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Tanakpur  in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Khatima in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Ranikhet in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Hladwani  in third Panipat Battle;