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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Thursday, July 16, 2015

Survey of Kumaon and Garhwal by Moorcroft and Hearsay

Anglo Nepalese War with   Reference to Gurkha Rule over Uttarakhand & Himachal -26
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -146   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -668

                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student) 
               Moorcroft surveyed Kumaon and Garhwal comprehensively for East India Company. He travelled the region pretending as Hindu Gusain with his tem in 1812. Ex Maratha soldier, Captain Haidar Hearsay, Haidar Khan and Pundit Harakdev also travelled with Moorcroft. Hearsay had the task for measuring road, making road map with the help o f Compass and writing full details of the road and adjoining land. Pundit had to measure the road length by his step. His four two step was equal to four feet (Hugue Pears, The Hearsays).
    After Moorcroft introducing Hearsay to east India Company, hearsay dispatched army strategic information about Nepal, Kumaon and Garhwal.
    On 24th August 1814, wrote letter to Company Secretary John Adam informing about high tussle between Chautaria and Thapa groups in Kathmandu. Hearsay suggested that due to cut throat conflicts between two groups in Nepal, Company can dislodge the Nepal King.
       Hearsay informed authentic details of numbers of Nepalese soldiers, guns, arms and ammunition, guns, gun powder, forts and soldiers and also informed the road details of Kumaon, Garhwal and Sirmour to East India Company.
    Hearsay informed that Gurkha soldiers are perfect brave, faithful, strong soldiers. Gorkha army did not supply them satisfactory dress, and arms and ammunition.  The guns and gun pewter were of very inferior quality. He informed that many soldiers did not have gun but either a wood rod or Sword. Every soldier had Khukari hung on his back. Soldiers spent night or sun under temporary Chhapar (tree logs covered by leaves). The Gurkha soldiers were very faithful and did not hesitate for dying for King. They were Hindu and used to take Lunch/dinner together and did not take Beef at all. Nepal government paid very low salary to soldiers. Hearsay suggested that by more salaries, Gurkha soldiers would join British army (Saksena, Historical papers related to Kumaon).
            Hearsay also submitted information about mineral resources, forests, forest produces, of Garhwal, Kumaon and Dehradun. Hearsay informed strategic places of Dehradun and Kiyardoon important for war and defense purposes.
                 Hearsay informed to the Company high cadre officials that the subject of Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal are against Gurkha due to Gurkha oppressive methods. He clearly suggested that people from Kali east to Sutlej would help Company for getting freedom from Nepalese rule. Hearsay assured that since, people were not with Gurkha, the Company could evacuate Gurkha from Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal within a month. He guessed that Doti subjects hated Gurkha but they would not help the Company because then , they were habitual of suppression.

** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com16/7/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -669
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena , historical papers related to Kumaon

History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,