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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

History of British Survey in Garhwal and Kumaon

Anglo Nepalese War with   Reference to Gurkha Rule over Uttarakhand & Himachal -23
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -143   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -665

                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student) 

                    British travelers and officials had been surveying Garhwal and Kumaon long before Anglo Nepalese war. British were always anxious for knowing strategic places and their importance.
       After completing survey of Bhutan, in 1788, Reuben Burrow reached Haridwar. From Haridwar, Reuben Burrow went to Danda Mandal Hill shrine on the Lakhsmanjhula- Neelkanth Road. He reported that he could see Chaukhmaba and Almora Hills from there. Reuben Burrow tried to gauze the heights of those shrines.
   In 1789, an Artist Denial reached Shrinagar with a couple of army officials. Denial collected information about mines-minerals, flora, economic condition, geographical aspects, roads etc. Denial drew fine drawing of Shrinagar and Nazibabad. Denial drew map of Garhwal wherein he drew Bhagirathi, Alaknanda Shrinagar, and Devprayag etc. In 1789, Captain John Guthrie reached Shrinagar with compass and found geographical aspects of Garhwal (Phillimore).
               In 1796, Captain Hardwick reached Shrinagar Naziabad via Kotdwara – Banghat. Hardwick wrote various aspects of Garhwal and that information were published in Asiatic Researches vol-6.  
                          Survey of Archibald

               In 1802-3, Archibald surveyed north of Moradabad and also collected important information about Kumaon. He sent those information to Lieutenant General Wellesley. He reported various aspects of Nepalese defense and administration and conditions of Kumaunis.  In 1808, Colebrook reached to Banvasa near Sharda bank and as curious men Kumaunis came to his camp to see a White man. Colebrook asked them details of road reaching to Almora.
 Colebrook reached to Bilorighat from Brahmdev Mandi. Colbrook met a few Mewati who used to collect exportation money from grazers and forest contractors.  From there Colebrook returned back to Kashipur via Peeparhatti and Saktipur. Colebrook collected important information about Kumaon Tarai and Bhabhar under Nepal.
                   W.S Web and Reaper
           As per advice of Colebrook, East India Company got permission from Nepal King for Lieutenant W.S Web for travelling to Gangotri for knowing the exact source of Ganga River. When Web reached to Haridwar and met Nepalese officer they met him cordially. Web and Reaper met Hastidal Chautariya in Bhimgoda.  They went up to Bhatwadi (Bhagirathy valley) and returned to Shrinagar. They also visited Badrinath from Shrinagar.
Web surveyed from Bhagirathi Valley to that place where Ramganga River meets Ganga River. Web took two years for survey and collected important information. Web drew amap wherein he pointed rivers, hills, roads, staying places on those roads and other geographical aspects.

** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com13/7/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -666
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena , historical papers related to Kumaon

History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,