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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Strategic Information Collection by East India Company

Anglo Nepalese War with   Reference to Gurkha Rule over Uttarakhand & Himachal -21
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -142   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -663

                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student) 

                     Hills as Difficult Most Terrain
                    Contrary to Nepal, East India Company was busy in getting finer details about Nepalese territories and their strengths.  It was known to the Governor General that geographical knowledge of hills played great role in war in Hills. In Hills, the attackers had to face the enemy but with difficulties of nature. There were/are rocks, caves, forests, bushes, rivers, rivulets, narrow valleys, difficult valleys, steep steps, sliding steps, high hills, wild animals, and insects in Hills those become problems for strangers to tackle.
           In the past, Hill people stopped enemy campaign by slipping big stones on the army men from High hills. Spreading of sudden diseases to strangers was another difficulty for having war with Hill army.
          Food supply management was hell of task for plains army. Carrying guns and gun powder, arms and ammunition was always a difficulty. Therefore, it was important for having complete information of hill terrains for British army. 

                 Strategic Information Collection in East of Kali River

                East India Company had been collecting strategic Information in East of Kali River region for many years. In 1767, Kinloch was sent to capture Nepal region. Mall King’s ambassador and Gusains offered him information about battle fields. However, Kinloch attacked without complete preparation on unknown terrain. Company lost war and prestige too.
     In 1810, Company collected information from Ranbahadur and his men in Banaras. Company had been sending its emissaries to Nepal and everybody used to collect specific information about Nepal and bordering region. By 1814, Company had sufficient information about East of kali River of Nepal.
                  Strategic Information from far West of Kali River
  East India Company had been collecting various types of information about Katauch/Kangda and other parts of Himachal.


** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com11/7/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -664
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,