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Sunday, April 14, 2013

Shiv Gatha: Kumaon-Garhwali Folklore on Lord Shiva


Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-4
Religious and Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 4 

                                        Bhishma Kukreti 

                         Folklores on Lord Shiva in Non-Indian Territories
                There are classic literature and folk literature available about Lord Shiva in all parts of Jambudweep (India, before 1 B.C). For example, there are folktales and folk dances related to Shiva in Cambodia as the kings before Asoka era were Shaivya or Vaishnva. There are temples of Shiva of ancient time in Cambodia.  
            There are various types of temples and symbolic sculptures of Shiva in Thailand. There are folklores related to lord Shiva in Thai literature as ‘Cha Larm tri Pob’.
  St. Andrew and St. John provide the folklores of Burma or Myanmar about Lord Shiva (Indo Burmese Folklore, 1889).
 There are folklores/folktales related to lord Shiva in Javanese and Balinese cultures. Thaipusam festival in Malaysia is definitely related to folklore related to Lord Murugan son of Lord Shiva (Pierced by Murugan’s lance by Elizabeth Fuller, 1997).
 It is said that the Trusul folklore of Romani or European gypsies is related to Trident of lord Shiva.
Taking clue from Persian and Arabic pronunciation (Shiva=Hiva, Sindhu=Hindu, Asura=Ahura), a couple of scholars are of opinion that there are instances of Shiva in Old Iranian folk literature as in Zoroastrian literature.
                           Shiv Gatha: Kumaon-Garhwali Folklore on Lord Shiva 
                               Shiva Marriage Story in folklore
Shaivism influenced very much the Kumaoni and Garhwali societies from ancient time. There are hundreds of Shiva temples or temples related to Shaivya cult in the region. There are tens of folk stories/folklores around lord Shiva in Garhwal and Kumaon. One of folklores is about lord Shiva marrying Gauri.
The Shiva marriage event starts in folklore as
 कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -4
                       शिव गाथा मूल संकलनडा कृष्णा नन्द जोशी 
--------------------------------------
  शिव गौरी विवाह प्रसंग 
 हे शिव भगवानु लै की रथ बणायो
गुरु घिंगालीनाथ बणायातिन लोकी तिरसुलनाथ बणाया
तिरलोकी त्रिसूलनाथ गुरु हिमांल में बसा
तवी गुरु का भगवानु लै दियि हाली हतेंडली में तीन तला धरती
तब गुरु जप करनी
हात  में रुद्रांछ कि माला जपी दैनी हाल
तिरसूल बीराज्ये  बौ आडुली गुरु
पंचचूली बैठ हिमांल हे पंच नाम देवतो
हे बरमा .  बिष्णु , चित्रगुप्त . भगवान हिया रचा
तब नारद रिखी जु थै कयो   होलो महादेव सिवजी को ब्याह
हे प्रजापाल की साटी चेली भया
तब सिव भगवानु लै धरो कलंगी को रूप
तब गया महादेव ज्यू प्रजापाल का घर
सबूं को मन लागौ हौरन कै
गौरी सब ज्येठी चेली को  मन महादेव लागो
तब शिव ज्यू का संग में भगवती गौरी महादेव को ब्या है गयो
महादेव ज्यू लै प्रजापाल कन ढोक नि दी कबेर
प्रजापाल को मन रीस लै भरी गयो 

O Lord! What did you create new universe? He created Guru Ghigaali Nath, Trilokpati, Trishulnath. Trilokpati and Trishulnath started living in Himalaya. O guru! Then God he put three based earth on your palm. Then, Guru took long Samadhi. He took Rudraksh on right hand and started Jap and took Trident on left hand. The O Thirty three Crores deities! Panchdevta- Brahma, Vishny, Chitrgupt and shakti asked sage Narad ,” tell us the story of Shiva-marrigae”.
    Prajapti had sixty daughters. There was Swamvar of his daughters. Shiva went there as leprosy man. Other girls of Prajapti choose other deities as their husbands.  The eldest daughter Gauri loved Shiva. Shiva married Gauri.
             Mahdev did not salute Prajapati . Prajapati the father of Gauri became very angry. However, it was not possible for Shiva to salute as he is consumption god too.
     Prajapati thought to insult Shiva. Prajapati organized a Yagya to be run for twelve years and did not invite his eldest son in law Shiva.
                The heavenly chariots of goddesses and deities were making noise in the sky. Gauri asked Mahadev about the movement of chariots in the sky. Lord shiva disclosed that her father organized a twelve year Yagya but did not invite the, Gauri said,” it is not possible. Father should have invited me first and then others.”
Laughingly, Mahadev said,” If you don’t believe me you should go to your mother place.” 
Angrily Gauri went to her father’s place.
Prajapati was busy in sacrifice for Yagya.
Offering respect to her father, Gauri touched her father’s feet. Prajapati asked, “I never invited you. Why did you come here without my invitation?” Her mother also fired her for coming without invitation. The sisters also accused her coming to father’s Yagya without invitation. Gauri was feeling insult and guilty that she did not obey lord Shiva (her husband). Gauri jumped into hot boiling oil pot and died.
Lord Mahadev saw Gauri in dream. She was repenting her disobeying the advice of Shiva. Lord Shiva came aware from Samadhi and fell sorry. He went to Prajapati place. Shiva started doing Tapa and Japa. Gauri’s soul showed sorry to Mahadev.  Gauri took new birth as daughter of Himalaya and married to Shiva.   


Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Tony Samantha Phim andamp, Ashley Thompson, 2000, Dance in Cambodia, Uni. Chicago, NY.

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 8/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…4
Religious Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued… 4 
 Notes on Folklore on Lord Shiva; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  Kumaon; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Garhwal;  Folklore on Lord Shiva from Mid Himalaya; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Himalaya; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  India; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Asia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  Oriental countries; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Burma/Myanmar; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Indonesia;  Folklore on Lord Shiva from Bali; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Java; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Malaysia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Cambodia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Thailand