Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -14
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-11
Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -1
There are two major theories about initiation of Aryan civilization in India-.
1-Aryans migrated from Eurasia
2-Out of India Theory (OIT) or Indian Urheimat Theory or Indigenous Aryans
Aryans migrated from Eurasia or are Indo Iranian in origin
It is believed that Aryans have origin in Eurasia. The Yaz, BMAC (Bacteria-Margiana Archeological Complex) and Andronova cultures have association with Indo-Iranian migrations, with Indo Aryans proper separating from Proto-Indo-Iranian dated back 2000-1800 B.C. The Gandhara grave, Cometery H. Copper Hoard and painted Grey Ware cultures are associated with Indo Aryan movement.
According to Shaffer, there are very scanty evidences of mass Iranian –Aryan movement to India but there is small evidence for small scale migration to South Asia. Linguistic theories were mainly responsible for the theory of Indo Aryan as Eurasian race.
Indian Urheimat Theory or Indigenous Aryans Theory
In twentieth century, scholars started providing new theories that Aryans were Indigenous rather than Indo-Iranian race.
Elst (1999),Talageri (2000) came with Indian Urheimat theory or Indigenous Aryan theory.
After studying DNAs, Professor Lal Ji Singh, Gyaneshwar Chaubey, Dr Kumarswamy Thangaraja (2011) declared that no foreign DNA entered the Indian mainstream in the last 60000 years. They claim that Africans came to India through central Asia during 80000-60000BCE.
Whatever may the theories, it is sure that Vedic Aryan civilization started before Vedas were created and the Aryan culture started after Indus civilization ended or was ending.
Mostly the characteristics of Aryan are guessed on the basis of Rig-Veda. It seems the Aryans were reached to Yamuna at the time of Rigveda.
The colour of Aryans was whitish or fair. The hair color was golden and eyes were blue. They were with dense beard.
Aryans used to assume domestic animals as wealth. The custom of keeping caretaker for animals was also started.
The Vedic civilization was more of rural community. Main meal was –meat, cereals, pulses, milk. There were farmers, Brahmins, Kshatriya , chariot drivers, carpenters, metal smith, in the society. There was system of King and kingdom.
The Aryans used to enjoy dances, songs, gambling, horse riding and Som drink.
The dress was made of cotton and leather. The Aryans like white dress. They used to enjoy ornaments.
The weapons were arrow, bow, club, different axes,
The family was governed by eldest man. The society was paternal oriented and son has importance. The marriages were in the same community. The caste system was very strong. Men used to marry with more than one wives. There was system for educating girls.
The Aryan worshipped deities and goddesses with devotion. They were worshippers of strength and were hopeful. Aryans were well versed with the idea of psychological strength and values of hope/optimism. Aryans were believers of souls, life after death, bad souls, good souls, belivers of heaven and hell.
The major deities of Aryans were Indra, Aditi, Varun, Mitra, Agni, Aryama, savitri, Rudra, Marut, rodasi, Ashwini, Nasatya, Bhag, Sarswati, vayu, ribhuksha, Parjany. The forefathers were as deities.
Aryans worshipped the rivers, sun rise, sun, clouds, fire, and seasons as deities.
There was importance for farming and forest produces.
Yagya was started by Aryans. Offering animals to deities was also there.
The prayers were for prosperity, defense-protection, society, fame, enemy killings, getting servants, long life, sons and children, protection from wild animals etc. The Aryan used to ask t deities to give them hundred years of life.
Besides mantras, Aryans were versed with herbal medicines and surgery. Black magic was also part of Aryan culture.
Respecting fire and saving fire was main part of culture.
***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -15
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -15
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…12
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010 History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad, India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360)
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas,
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
M.S. S Rawat (editor),, Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan, 2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011
Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…