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Wednesday, April 17, 2013

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -13


Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-10

        Thapli Sites, Malari Burials, Ranihat Sites, Sanana Baseri and ancient History of Uttarakhand

[Notes on ancient history of Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Almora Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Champawat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dwarhat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pithauragarh Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Bageshwar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand]


                                  Bhishma Kukreti

                                    Thapli Excavation

                  The K.P.Nautiyal team excavated at Thapli (near Shrinagar at Shrinagar –Badrinath road at Alaknanda bank) in 1982-83. The site is single painted grey ware culture and period is estimated 1100-800B.C. 

                          Malari Burials and History of Uttarakhand

                Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral informed about his finding burials in Malari village (3800Meter height, Niti valley, Chamoli Garhwal, 61 Km from Joshimath at bank of Dhauliganga) on June 1956. Agarwal , Bhatt, J.Kharakwal, K.P. Nautiyal and B.M Khanduri et al also did researches on the burials of Malari.
    Dr K.P. Nautiyal and B.M. Khanduri provide us recent details of recent researches on prehistoric time of Uttarakhand.   The Malari burials are now said to be 1-2 B.C. (http://www.asidehraduncircle.in/excavation.html, Archeological Survey of India Dehradun).   
 Caves of burials – The oval caves were covered by flat stones. The men /women were buried bent knees. There are similarities in burying pattern with burials found in Iran of 100-200 B.C. Earthen  Pots, potteries, drink vessels and dishes of meat were kept on the head side of buried persons.
Dabral informs that same types of burials were found in Dwarhat , Kumaon. Pandey refers them as burials of sages.  Dabral also refers the similar burials in ladakh, lahul, Chamba Tibet. Agarwal and Kharakwal provide references of Stacul to make similarities of Malari burials with Burazahom of Kashmir. Dabral states that these burials may be of Saka and Agarwal and Kharakwal states,” ..Some of these burial complexes may belong to Early Indo European migrants in to central and western Himalayas.”
The People- the human died by natural death and the height of those buried men /women were five feet three inches. They were strong, with broad chest, strong jaws and strong teeth.
Appliances found- The leather bag (kutup), monal was drew on leather bag (kutup), squat pot, grey ware bowl, pedestalled bowl, red ware bowl ,spouted pots, horse burials, horse harshening appliances were found in the burials.
Hunters- The burials indicate that the Malari people were mainly hunters and used to depend on domesticated animals. They used to do farming perhaps in summer season. The Malari population used to build caves for them and animals.
               The Malari society was happy society. The human beings were mainly dependent on meat. Malari culture was fully aware of copper items. The society was well versed with jewelry. Dr Dabral predicted that the society used to migrate from height altitude to lower altitude as it happens now in Niti and Mana regions.  
The Malari people were also traders and used to export animals, wool, leather, herbs etc and used to import metallic appliances, precious stones and barleys.
The society had system of leader leading the society.
The society used to believe on good souls, harmful souls and deities. The people used to believe on the satisfaction of souls.

                               Ranihat excavation and History of Uttarakhand
 There was archeological excavation at Ranihat (opposite Shrinagar, bank of Alaknanda, Tihri Garhwal) in 1977 under the supervision of Professor K.P. Nautiyal and the site represents three occupational periods-Period-I (600-400 B.C.), Period II (400-200B.C.) and Period III (200B.C.-200AD).
Period I-There were evidences smelting iron and copper in  period I of Ranihat excavation as unpainted grey ware, glossy red ware, black polished ware.
Period II- The excavation party found burnt bricks, varieties of potteries such as rimless handi, miniature bowl of Maurayan period.
Period IIB-decent floors with the help of stones and new types of potteries as sprinkles,
Period III- built structures of stones and expertise in iron smelting and manufacturing iron tools.
                            Sanana Baseri, Almora
H.N. Bahuguna University team excavated the Sanana Baseri, Almora sites, and urn burials and found the painted grey ware culture. The team found in urn burials -large size earthen jars with ripple marks, dishes miniature bowls, vases, globular goblets. There was practice of multiple burials.  



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/4/2013 

(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -13
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…11
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri , 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt,  K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cist+burials+of+the+Kumaun+Himalayas.-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment  
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
M.S. S Rawat (editor),, Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on ancient history of Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Almora Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Champawat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dwarhat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pithauragarh Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Bageshwar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand to be continued…