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Monday, April 8, 2013

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -4


 Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -4 

                                                   Bhishma Kukreti 

[Notes on History of Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Tihri Garhwal Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Nainital Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Bageshwar Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pithauragarh Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age]
                General Characteristics of Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age

           It is not better practice to divide ages by exact date. However, the Stone Age was succeeded by copper age, Bronze Age and iron age (Metal age). Metal age started by 6 to 7 thousands year back.
                                                        Copper Age
          Around 2000 years of Metal Age man lived in Copper Age. At the copper Age men used stone and copper tools. This is the reason that age is also named as Chalcolithic Age too.
           Man developed wheel, boat, potter wheel, bullock carts in the Copper Age.
  The Chalcolithic age also brought the birth of specialist and special class (Varn).
                                                     Bronze Age
     Time Span: 4000-2000 B.C.
At the end of copper age, men knew to mixing of tin and copper metals for making Bronze.
 Human societies started building canals or water reservoirs in the Bronze Age.  
 Irrigation, complex societies, urban centers, army, laws, trade, payment, records of trade came in existence in Bronze Age.
                                                       Iron Age
    Time Span: 1500-1200BC
  The man invented steel and plastic in Iron Age.      
                                         Major Civilization of Metal Age                                                                       
 Tigris Euphrates River Valleys, Nile River Valley and Indus Valley civilizations are major civilizations of Metal Era. Other civilizations as Majiyao, Amoirte kingdom, emergence of Zoroastrians civilization, are well studied civilizations.  The burial and cremation were improved. Religious rituals came in existence. Writing came in existence. The well planned arm battles also started in this age. Spurting of Chinese and Vedic literature are again the spectacular images of metal Age.
                            Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age
   The studies and writings of Dabral, Vinod Nautiyal, K.P Nautiyal, Mathpal, Jeewan Kharkwal, Saklani, and Joshi suggest that the societies were flourishing in Garhwal-Kumaun (Uttarakhand, Himalayas India). There were mines of iron, copper in Garhwal and Kumaun. Today, the signs of metal mines in Dhanpur, Dobri, Pokhari (Garhwal) and Gangoli, Seera, Athgaon (Kumaon) speak that metallurgies was common in Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand ). The Parshu, knives, spears, harpoon, rings were found in Bahdarabad ruins that proof the civilizations in Garhwal and Kumaun in Metal Age. Near Bahdarabad ruins, historians found mud pots. Art making and improving human life was the main characteristics of this age.
  Mahabharata states that the iron smith or metal smiths of Uttarakhand used to smelt ores and used to export metal appliances/tool to plains of Jamboodweep(India). Rahul Sankrityayan  reports that the Iron Pillar of Delhi  (1500 years back)was made by craftsmen of Uttarakhand and by iron smelted in Uttarakhand.  It seems the craftsmen of Uttarakhand used to supply iron appliances to Kaurvas-Pandavas.
References:
Dr Shivprasad Dabral, 1968 Uttarakhand ka Itihas-2, Veergatha Dogadda, India
Trigger, Bruce C, 1996, A History of Archeological Thoughts,
Pandey,Gaya, 2010, Biocultural Evolution (page 114)
Agarwal, D.P. , J.S .Kharakwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological , linguistic and Cultural Synthesis (pages9 and 152)
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of Himalayas (page 135)
Mahesh Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaun and Garhwal) Himalayas: an essay in historical anthropology (page 15)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part 4
Commentary  on History of Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Tihri Garhwal Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Nainital Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Bageshwar Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pithauragarh Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age to be continued…