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Sunday, April 14, 2013

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -12


Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-8
History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era -1

                                       Bhishma Kukreti

         History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era    

          Civilization Ages in Chronological pattern 


    The Indus (Sindhu Ghati ki Sabhyata ) civilization is one of oldest urbanized society. It flourished in today’s Pakistan, Baluchistan and Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh regions too.  
          The Indus Valley sites are –Almagiripur (Meerut), Balu (Haryana), Balakot (Pakistan), Banwali (Haryana), Bargaon (Saharanpur), Bhagtarav (Gujrat),Bhirana (Haryana), Sindh (Pakistan), Dholavira (Kucch Gujrat),Daimabad (later Harappa, Mahrashtra), farmana (Haryana), Ganeriwala (Punjab, Pakistan), Goladhoro ( Gujarat), Harappa (Pak),Hulas (Saharanpur), kalibangan (rajsthan), Khirsara (Kutch, Guj),Padri (Kutch, Guj),kotbala (Pak),Kot Diji, (Sindh), Kunal (Haryana),Kuntasi, (Rajkot, Guj), Lakhun do Jado(Pak), Larkana (Sindh), Lateshwar (mehsana, Guj), Lothal (Ahdbad, Guj), Manda (j&K, Ind), Malwan (Surat, guj),Mandi (U.P), Mehargarh(Pak), Mohenjo daro (SIndh),Mundigak (Afghn),Nausharo (Pak), Ongar (Pak), Pir Shah Juno  (Sindh), Pirak (Pak), Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Rangpur (Ahmd , Guj),Rahman Dheri (Pak), Rojdi (Rajkot, Guj), Rupar, (Punj), Sanauli (Bagpat, india), Shikarpur (Guj), Shortugai(Afgn), Sothi (Haryana), Shurkotada (Guj), Sutkagar Dor (Afghanistan).
    The historians provide the chronological Ages of Indus Valley civilization as follows
Date Range ---------------------Phase----------------------Era
7000-5500 BCE------------Aceramic Neolithic-----------Early Food Producing Era
5500-3300 BCE------------Ceramic -------------------------Regionalization era
3300-2600-----------------Early Harappan----------------- Regionalization era
3300-2800-----------------Harappan (Ravi Phase) ----- Regionalization era
2800-2600-----------------Harappan phase 2 ------------- Regionalization era
2600—1900 ------------Mature Harappan A, B, C Indus Valley civilization,--Integration Era
1900-1300--------------Late Harappan --------------------------------Localization Era
1900-1700---------------Harappan  4------------------------------------ Localization Era
1700-1300-----------------Harappan 5----------------------------------- Localization Era
1300-300----------------Painted Grey Ware –Iron Age ------------Indo Gangetic Tradition
   The script of Indus valley civilization is yet to decipher. The archeologists found 400-600 symbols.
 It seems that there was no ruler system in this age and everybody enjoyed equal status. But every society had own authority.  There was accuracy to measure length, height etc. The society followed decimal system. Indus system coined metallurgy and developed it. Civil engineering was best. There were uses of sculpture, seals, pottery, gold jewelry,   in Indus valley civilization era. The societies worshiped images.
 There were some types of dance in the society. There were many crafts as shell working, ceramics, agate, bead making.
The societies depended on trade. The people used to celebrate religious ceremonies and used to worship gods and goddesses. Initially, the burial system was common but in later stage, the cremation was also common.
There were four main classes in the society- Elite class, soldiers, Traders/craftsmen, Servants.
 It is said that due to climate changes, the civilization started collapsing and people started migrating various places. Non- commissioning of fort is also one of the reasons of collapsing of Indus valley civilization.
 Indus Valley civilization influenced all the later societies of northern and western India.
When the Indus valley civilization was flourishing, there were Proto-Australoid, Mediterranean, Monggoloid and or Alpanoid civilizations in Uttarakhand (Already written in last parts).
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -13
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…9
History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era to be continued…2


References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad  Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
Dr.Bipin Adhikari , 2011, Nepal Khas Jati,
H.K Barpujari, 1990, The Comprehensive History of Assam (page 11)
Bindeshwar Prasad Sinha, 1974 The Comprehensive History of Bihar (Page-70)
Fisher, William B., 2003, The Middle East and Africa 
S.N Sen, 1999, Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe