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Sunday, April 28, 2013

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21

Historical phases of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Period of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -6

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21  

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-19                     
Historical Phases of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans-6             

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

           Dyutkreeda of gambling among Kauravas and Pandavas and Uttarakhand 

           There is description in Mahabharata that Duryodhan the king of Hastinapur invited his cousin brother Yudhishthir for gambling. In gambling with cousin Duryodhan, the king of Indraprasth Yudhishthir lost his kingdom, brothers and wife Draupadi. Due to conditions of gambling law, Pandavas had to live into forests for thirteen years and one year Agyat vas.
          In those years, Arjun went to Uttarakhand and he collected divine weapons from deities from heaven. Arjun got divine weapons the Himalayan regions at the Ganges bank (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 40/41).
                   Pandavas as Pilgrim Travel in Uttarakhand   

 Pandavas, Draupadi along with Garhwali family priest and Lomas sage travelled to Uttarakhand as pilgrims and visited Usheerbeej, Mainak, Kalshail near Ganges bank (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 139/1). The Kulind king Subahu welcomed Pandavas (Vanparva, 140/25).  Pandvas travelled Badrikashram along the bank of Alaknanda River.
In Himalayan region of Uttarakhand (today’s Chamoli Garhwal) Pandavas met giants and Bhīma killed them. In Uttarkahnd Pandavas also visited Nar Naryan hills, Kailash, too. There is description in Mahbharata met Darad and Tushar communities of Kulind kingdom (Mahabharata, Vanparva 17715).
 Duryodhan came there in Himalayan region to insult Pandavas but was defeated by Himalayan Gandharvas and Gandharvas caught Duryodhan and jailed. Yudhisthir fought Gandharvas to free Duryodhan. Duryodhan felt insulted and wanted to kill himself. To sooth Duryodhan, Karna won the territories of Himwant and Nepal of central Himalayan region (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 254/5-6). 

                    Great battle of Kurukshetra and Role of Uttarakhandis
 Mahabharata is more famous among general public because of Kurukshetra battle (Mahabharata means great battle).
 The Kulind king Subahu and his three sons participated in Kurukshetra battle the Mahabharata and Subahu supported Pandvas (Mahabharata, Karna parva, 85/4-19). Pashanyudhi (those use stones as weapon) Mlechh supported Kauravas and fought for Duryodhan (Mahabharata, Dronparva, 121/13-43).
  Nagkanya Ulipi was one of wives of Arjun and belonged to Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand) and they had son Irwan. Irwan fought the battle with brevity (Mahabharata, Bhishma parva).
 Ghatotkachh was the son of Bhīma and Hidmba the mother of Ghatotkachh was a giantess of Garhwal, Uttarakhand. Ghatotkachh fought with great valor in great Kurukshetra battle (Mahabharata Dronaparva).
 When Pandavas won the war they decided to celebrate it by Ashwmedh Yagya. Arjun got resources from Uttarakhand (Mahabharat, Ashwmedhikparva 63-65)
  Gandhari, Kunti , Dhritirashtra and many went to Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand) for paying /libation to dead ones (Mahabharata, Ashramvasik parva 29/32) . Kunti, Dhritrashtra ,Gandhari with Sanjay died by fire in Uttarakhand (Mahabharata, Ashramvasik parva 37).
 Pandavas went to Himalayan shrine of Uttarakhand and Yudhishthir entered heaven bodily.

                                     Krishna and Uttarakhand
  There is description of lord Krishna visiting Uttarakhand to meet Pandvas in Mahabharata (Vanparva, Dronparva ).
Krishna also visited Kalsi with Pandavas (Mahabharata, Sabhaparava)
Krishna also travelled Uttarakhand for getting blessing to get sons (Mahabharata, Anushasanparva).
The two mountains on Nar, Narayan back side of Badrinath are called incarnation of Arjun and Krishna respectively. (Mahabharata, vanparva).
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 27/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -23
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…20

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on History of Uttarakhand, History of Garhwal, Notes on History of Kumaon,  History of Pauri Garhwal,  History of Chamoli Garhwal,  History of Rudraprayag,  History of Tihri Garhwal,  History of Uttarkashi,  History of Dehradun,  History of Haridwar/Hardwar,  History of Udham Singh Nagar,  History of Nainital,  History of Almora,  History of Champawat, History of Bageshwar,  History of Pithauragarh to be continued….