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Thursday, April 25, 2013

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 20

Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -4

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 20  

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-17                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -4           

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

                                 Uttarakhand in   Krishna Era or in Mahabharata era
 As already discussed that first brave King of India was Bharat and he was Garhwali who was born in Kanvashram, Bhabhar Garhwal.
Decline of Suryavansh- After time gap, there was decline of Suryavansh. In Dwapar era, Paurav, Panchal, Yadav became stronger in India.
Kuruvansh- the Kuru king of Paurav kingdom (capital was Hastinapur, today’s Haryana region) was the strongest king. Kuru extended his kingdom and was called Kurukshetra and Kurujangal. One of the kings of Kuruvansh was Shantanu. Shantanu had a son Devbrata who vowed not to marry and later was called Bhishma. Shantuna married Styavati who had two sons. One of sons died early. Vichitryviry ruled kuru for some time but died early. After the death of Vichitravirya, through Niyog technique with Vyasa, his three wives (including maid servant) had sons Dhritrarashtra (blind), Pandu( weak in color) and Vidur.
 It is said in Mahabharata that there was shradh of Shantanu the father of Bhishma and Vichitravirya  in Gangadwar (Hardwar),(Mahabharata, Anushashan parva).
Pandu- Since the eldest sons of Kuruvansha Dhritarashtra was blind, Pandu became the king of Kurukshetra or Kurujangal.  Pandu extended his kingdom
Mahabharata states that Pandu was hunting lover and he hunted regularly in dense Bhabhar forest with Shal trees. Today too, in Bhabhar, there is one valley called Panduvalasot (Adiparv, 113/8).

Pandu had to leave kingdom and he reached Shatshring near Badri-Kedar shrines travelling through Nagast (today’s Nagthat, Near Mussoorie); kalkoot (today’s Kalsi); Gandhmadhan (Mahabharata, Adiparva 124/3-4). Shatshring was two hundred miles away from Hastinapaur (Haryana) the capital of Kuru kingdom. Five Pandavas were born in Uttarakhand (Shatshringi). When Pandu died, his queen Kunti and five sons Pandavas reached back from Shatshrigi to Hastinapur in sixteen days.
Pandavas and Kaurvas- Pandavas were sons of Pandu and Kauravas (Duryodhan and other hundred sons) were sons of Dhritrrashtra.  
 Duryodhan the eldest son of Dhritrashtra was not ready to accept Pandavas as heir of Kuruvansh. He conceived a plan to kill Pandavas in a palace made by resin. Pandavas ran away from the resin palace.     
                 From resin palace, Pandavas went to a forest at the Dhaumya Brahmin Ashrama , near Gangadwar ( Hardwar)  at the bank of Ganga. Dhyaumya was Garhwali Brahmin. There, Bhima killed a Rakshas Hidamba . One of Pandavas, Bhima married to Hidambana the sister of Hidamb. Ghatotkachh was son of Bhima and Hidambana.  From there, with the advice of vyasa , Pandavas went to Ekchakranagari (today’s Chakrata). In Ekchakranagari (Chakrata), Bhima killed a Bak rakhshas (Mahabharata, Adiparva).
Purohit Dhyaumya of Mahabharata epic- There was Swaymbar of Draupadi at Panchal and Arjun won Draupadi the princess of Panchal. Draupadi had to marry with all five brothers Pandavas (Yudhishthar, Bhima, Arjun, Nakul and Sahdev ). Dhyaumay was the main priest of Draupadi- Pandavas marriage. Dhyaumya was a Garhwali priest (Dabral, 1968, Mahabharata, Adiparva, 182/7-9). The Garhwali priest Dhyaumya also performed the rituals for many Sanskars for sons of Pandavas.
Arjun’s son Irwan- for a punishment one of Pandavas Arjun had to spend twelve years in forest. Once, Arjun was roaming in Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand). There a Ulipi the princesses of Nagraj Kaurvya fell in love with Arjun. Arjun married Ulipi and they had a son Irvan (Mahabharata, Adiparva, 213)
Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…5
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -21
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…18

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on Historical aspects of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Kumaon in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Tihri Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Jaunsar Bhabhar Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Hardwar Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Dehradun Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Chamoli Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Pauri Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Gangasalan Garhwal in Mahabharata epic to be continued…