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Sunday, April 21, 2013

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -15


Rigvedic Tribes and History of Uttarakhand 

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -15   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-12
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -2     
                                                                                                                                              
                                      Bhishma Kukreti

      It is essential that the historians discuss about tribes described in Rigveda to discuss the ancient history of Garhwal-Kumaon or Uttarakhand as described by Rahul Santyakritan, Dr Dabral, little bit by B.D.pandey, Saklani, Agarwal , Handa etc.
   According to F. Stall (1999), the tribes described in Rigveda are semi-nomadic pastoralists. The lists of tribes described in Rigved are –Alina people, Anu, Ayu, Bhajeratha, Bhalans, Aryan Bharats, Bhrigus, Chhedi, Dasa, Dasyu, Dhrabika,Druhus, Gandhari, Gungu, Iksavuku, Krivi, Kikata, Kuru, Mahina, Maujavant, Matsya, Meenas, Nahusa, Pakhta, Jan Kristi etc, Pani, Paravata, Parsu, Parthava, Puru, Rusama, Sarasvata, Satvant, Sigru, Simayu, Shiva, Snjaya, Savitana, Tritsu, Trivasa, Usinara, Vaikama, Vasu, Vibhindu, Visanin, Vrachivant, Yadu and Yaksu 

                                         Caves men Dasa 
                               
  There is mention of Aryans fought many times with Kirats the caves men of Punjab.
                                           Das Janpad 

                      The mentions of Dasas of Himalaya in Rigveda show that these Dasas janpad of Himalayan were great warriors, strong and difficult to win. That is why there are prayers for  winning to Dasas of Himalayas by Aryans in Rigveda.
                                            Hill Dasa Kings
  The Rigveda mentions the Dasa Kings as Shambar (Kangda Janpad king) was very strong and there was fight by Aryan with Shambar for forty years.
   Other hill Dasa kings were –Chumari, Dhuni, Shushn, Ashus, Balbut, Pipru, Vrishshrip, Kuyav, Vritr, Vyans, Rudhika, Namuchi, Kulitar, Bhed, Aj, Yaksh, Shigru, Yaksh, Shigru, Ilivish, Varchin.
   Shambar , his son Bhed and other Hill Dasa kings fought with Aryan Divodas and his son Sudas.

 ***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -16
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -16
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…13
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan, 2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011 


Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…